Order Carnivora – Suborder Pinnipedia• Seals, sea lions, walruses• Pinniped means “feather foot”• Paddle shaped flippers and hind limbs for swimming and moving on land• Return to shore – “haul out” – to rest, mate and raise pups
Order Carnivora – Suborder Pinnipedia• Evolved from same line as bears• Largest = male northern elephant seal – 8,000 lbs., feeds on sharks, skates, fish, squid
Order Carnivora – Suborder Pinnipedia seals vs sea lions Seals Sea LionsHind flippers for swimming – Front flippers longer forfront flippers short swimmingCannot turn hind flippers under Can turn hind flippers under bodybody - useless for walking – - to walk on landawkward on landNo ear flap – just hole Visible external ear flapsUsually in colder waters – thick Usually in warmer waters – lessblubber layer blubberNot trainable – not in shows Trainable – in shows
Order Carnivora – Suborder Pinnipedia seals vs sea lions sea lion seal
Order Carnivora – Suborder Pinnipedia walruses• Larger than seals and sea lions• Weigh up to 2 tons• Tusks help search for food (clams and mussels) and pull bodies on ice floes• Thick blubber layer
Order Carnivora – Suborder Pinnipedia • No sea lions or walruses near Long Island • Only true seals: Gray seal Harp sealHarbor seal –most common Ringed seal Hooded seal
Order Carnivora – sea otters• Smallest marine mammals• Wide flipper-like hind feet and large flattened tails to swim• No blubber, but dense fur, layer of air below fur, high metabolic rate (to generate heat) keeps them warm• Almost hunted to extinction for fur – early 1900s
Order Carnivora – sea otters• Use tools (stones) to feed on clams and sea urchins and many other things• Important in kelp forests in California• No sea otters on east coast – only river otters
Order Carnivora – polar bears• Live in Arctic on pack ice or tundra• Solitary and nomadic – walk and swim between ice floes• Oar-like front paws to swim• Hunt by surprise – seals, stranded whales, sometimes fish and birds, also berries and seaweed
Order Carnivora – polar bears• Thick fur and blubber• Largest bears• No enemies, but humans
Order Sirenia• Manatees and dugongs (sea cows)• Slow, harmless, defenseless• Evolved from ungulates (deeror horselike ancestor)• Herbivores – eat seagrasses andseaweeds• Tropical and subtropical coastalwaters and rivers, ex: Florida manatee
Order Sirenia• Swim by moving tail up and down• Rely on sound for communication• Previously hunted to low numbers, now protected, but killed by boats dugong
Order Sirenia• Stellar sea cow – lived in Bering Sea• Hunted to extinction in 1768 - 27 years after discovery
Marine Mammal Protection Act• Enacted in 1972 in response to declines in whale and other marine mammal populations• Illegal to hunt, harvest, harass, kill or possess marine mammals or any parts• Exceptions for Alaska natives
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