Other Lis Issues Powerpoint


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Other Lis Issues Powerpoint

  1. 1. Other Long Island Sound Issues
  2. 2. Floatable Debris
  3. 3. Floatable Debris - EFFECTS <ul><li>Unsightly </li></ul><ul><li>Strangulation/entanglement of marine organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Choking marine organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard to navigation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Floatable Debris - Sources <ul><li>Boaters </li></ul><ul><li>CSOs – combined sewer overflows </li></ul><ul><li>Beachgoers </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff from street litter </li></ul>
  5. 5. Toxic Contaminants <ul><li>Poisons in the water </li></ul><ul><li>Cause acute (sudden) or chronic (long-term) effects on organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Bioaccumulate through food web </li></ul><ul><li>Can pose problems for human consumers of seafood (warnings for striped bass, eel and bluefish in LIS) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Toxic Contaminants - SOURCES <ul><li>point sources </li></ul><ul><li>from one particular spot such as a sewage treatment plant or discharge pipe </li></ul><ul><li>non-point sources </li></ul><ul><li>from all over such as stormwater runoff , atmospheric deposition and groundwater </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>watershed – the entire land area that drains into a stream, river, lake, estuary or ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Long Island Sound watershed covers 16,245 square miles </li></ul><ul><li>Long Island Sound watershed extends to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Any pollutants in this watershed wash into Long Island Sound </li></ul>
  8. 9. Thermal Pollution <ul><li>Power plants take in water to cool the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Warm water is discharged back to LIS </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms can only tolerate specific temperature ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Speeds up metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents seasonal migrations </li></ul><ul><li>Affects spawning times </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers dissolved oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Can increase disease incidences </li></ul>
  9. 10. Thermal Pollution <ul><li>Northport Power Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Port Jefferson Power Plant </li></ul>Also power plants in Connecticut at Waterford, New Haven, Bridgeport and Norwalk
  10. 11. Dredging and Dredge Disposal <ul><li>Underwater excavation of bottom sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Disposed in another location </li></ul>
  11. 12. Dredging <ul><li>Sediments settle and accumulate on bottom </li></ul><ul><li>> 500 million cubic yards per year in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Dredged for navigation - clear waterways, </li></ul><ul><li>harbors, ports, marinas, channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oil delivery and other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- recreational boats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- defense </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Dredge Disposal <ul><li>Dredged material must be disposed somewhere – LIS, ocean, on land? </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal site depends on level of toxic contamination of sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontaminated </li></ul><ul><li>dredged material </li></ul><ul><li>may be used for </li></ul><ul><li>beach nourishment, </li></ul><ul><li>fill, construction, </li></ul><ul><li>cap landfills </li></ul>
  13. 14. Dredge Disposal - PROBLEMS <ul><li>Disturbs benthic communities at dredge site, disposal area and nearby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kills existing organisms by smothering them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change grain size of sediment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace one benthic community by another – ecological succession may occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May upset benthic fisheries (clams, lobsters, flounder) and submerged vegetation (eelgrass beds) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Dredge Disposal - PROBLEMS <ul><li>Increases turbidity of water </li></ul><ul><li>Often dredged from industrialized areas </li></ul><ul><li>Sediments may contain toxic contaminants, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mercury, lead, copper, PCBs and pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sediments resuspended when dredging occurs </li></ul>
  15. 16. Dredge Disposal - EFFECTS <ul><li>Can be long-term degradation of ecosystem due to contaminants </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic effects on organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Biomagnification of toxic contaminants up food web – even to humans </li></ul>
  16. 17. Dredge Disposal - OPTIONS <ul><li>Cap disposal sites to prevent leaching of contaminants to water and isolate contaminants from organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Dredge from inner harbor (more polluted) to outer harbor (less polluted) – less polluted covers more polluted sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Locate dump sites in deeper water </li></ul>
  17. 18. Dredge Disposal - OPTIONS <ul><li>Restrict dredging and disposal to fall and winter (less biological activity) </li></ul><ul><li>Can use on-land sites or containment islands instead </li></ul><ul><li>Put dump sites in areas with high natural rate of deposition – less likely to erode </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>2005 – NY and CT agreed to phase out all dumping of untreated and contaminated dredged material in LIS and develop a management plan to deal with it </li></ul>Dredge material disposal sites in LIS
  19. 21. Underwater Cables <ul><li>2 electric transmission cables between CT & NY </li></ul><ul><li>Several fiber optic telecommunications cables between CT and NY </li></ul><ul><li>Others within CT or NY waters </li></ul><ul><li>On or beneath </li></ul><ul><li>sea floor </li></ul>
  20. 22. Cross Sound Cable - electric <ul><li>24 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>Connects New England power grid with L.I. power grid </li></ul><ul><li>Connects New Haven, CT to Shoreham, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Power mostly flows toward L.I. </li></ul><ul><li>Was supposed to begin operations in 2002 – legal fight </li></ul><ul><li>Started after blackout in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Buried beneath floor of LIS </li></ul>
  21. 23. 1385 Cables - electric <ul><ul><li>Runs between Norwalk, CT and Northport, NY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>series of 7 cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>older – operating since 1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lay on bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have been punctured by boat anchors and coolant around cable released </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>removed and replaced – 2008 – now buried 6 feet beneath bottom – now 3 cables </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Underwater Cables - PROBLEMS <ul><li>Older ones are filled with oil as insulation – leaks if punctured by anchors – has happened in LIS </li></ul><ul><li>Construction disrupts benthic communities – including productive shellfish beds </li></ul><ul><li>Benthic communities do not recover to original state </li></ul>
  23. 25. Natural Gas Pipelines – Iroquois Pipeline <ul><li>Carries natural gas from Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Crosses LIS from Milford, CT to Northport, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Sections of pipe are on or buried beneath seafloor </li></ul><ul><li>Branch to NYC </li></ul><ul><li>Would connect to Broadwater LNG facility </li></ul><ul><li>example of a natural gas pipeline on land </li></ul>
  24. 26. Proposed and Existing Natural Gas Pipelines
  25. 27. Natural Gas Pipelines - PROBLEMS <ul><li>Construction disrupts benthic communities – including productive shellfish beds </li></ul><ul><li>Benthic communities do not recover to original state </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially hazardous if punctured </li></ul>
  26. 28. Long Island Sound Crossings: Ferries <ul><li>Port Jefferson to Bridgeport </li></ul><ul><li>Orient Point to New London </li></ul>
  27. 29. Long Island Sound Crossings: Bridges <ul><li>bridges crossing LIS have been proposed in the past </li></ul><ul><li>but have never been built </li></ul>
  28. 30. Long Island Sound Crossings: Tunnel <ul><li>Proposed in fall 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Travel between Syosset, LI and Rye, West Chester </li></ul><ul><li>World’s longest highway tunnel = 16 – 18 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Would be privately financed, owned and operated – for profit – cost $10 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Cost $25 per car </li></ul><ul><li>Expected traffic = 80,000 cars per day </li></ul>
  29. 31. Long Island Sound Crossings: Tunnel proposed path
  30. 32. Long Island Sound Crossings: Tunnel <ul><li>Purpose is to relieve </li></ul><ul><li>traffic congestion </li></ul><ul><li>around NYC and </li></ul><ul><li>reduce air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Must go through </li></ul><ul><li>major permitting </li></ul><ul><li>Open around 2025 </li></ul><ul><li>Underground and under Sound = less opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Parks on top of entrances </li></ul><ul><li>Three lanes each direction </li></ul>
  31. 33. Oil Spills <ul><li>Major transport route of oil to NYC and other LIS ports </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for damaging oil spills </li></ul><ul><li>Have been minor oil spills in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on organisms, including </li></ul><ul><li>fisheries </li></ul>
  32. 34. Wind Farms <ul><li>Alternative, renewable source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>None currently planned for LIS </li></ul><ul><li>May be in future </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for wind farms off </li></ul><ul><li>Jones Beach (cancelled) </li></ul><ul><li>and Cape Cod </li></ul>
  33. 35. cancelled
  34. 36. Habitat Destruction <ul><li>Especially salt marshes, tidal flats, seagrasses </li></ul><ul><li>Filling in for development </li></ul><ul><li>Draining for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Dredged for marinas </li></ul><ul><li>Ditching for mosquito control </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation – breaking </li></ul><ul><li>into smaller pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Increased turbidity </li></ul>
  35. 37. Invasive Species <ul><li>Introduced or non-native </li></ul><ul><li>Often no natural predators </li></ul><ul><li>Often outcompete native species </li></ul><ul><li>Can do major economic damage </li></ul><ul><li>Almost impossible to remove </li></ul><ul><li>Often spread due to connectivity of the water </li></ul>
  36. 38. Invasive Species - EXAMPLES Asian shore crab Phragmites – common reed Green crab Codium – dead man’s fingers
  37. 39. Global Warming
  38. 40. Global Warming - EFFECTS <ul><li>Increase LIS temperature </li></ul><ul><li>May have contributed to lobster die-off </li></ul><ul><li>Make hypoxia worse </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise – damages coastal habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Increased shoreline erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Increase ocean acidity – corrode shells </li></ul><ul><li>Salt water contamination of drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Affect species distribution </li></ul>