El nino powerpoint

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El nino powerpoint

  1. 1. El Nino mass of warm surface water moving west to east across equatorial Pacific Ocean part of larger phenomenon called El Nino – Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
  2. 2. <ul><li>winds move from areas of high </li></ul><ul><li>pressure to areas of low pressure </li></ul><ul><li>ex: air from balloon exits balloon </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>normal situation over Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>(non-El Nino year): </li></ul><ul><li>low pressure over Asia </li></ul><ul><li>high pressure over South America </li></ul><ul><li>winds blow east to west </li></ul><ul><li>shallow thermocline along South </li></ul><ul><li>America, lots of upwelling, cold water </li></ul><ul><li>at surface </li></ul><ul><li>deeper thermocline near Asia, warm </li></ul><ul><li>surface water piles up </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>El Nino years over Pacific Ocean: </li></ul><ul><li>pressure change = Southern Oscillation </li></ul><ul><li>higher pressure over Asia </li></ul><ul><li>lower pressure over South America </li></ul><ul><li>winds weaken or blow west to east </li></ul><ul><li>thermocline deepens along South </li></ul><ul><li>America, little upwelling, warmer water at surface </li></ul><ul><li>warm surface water sloshes back along equatorial Pacific </li></ul>
  5. 10. sea surface temperature in Pacific Ocean
  6. 11. <ul><li>El Nino occurs every 3 to 8 years </li></ul><ul><li>usually lasts about 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>scientists do not know why pressure </li></ul><ul><li>changes causing winds to shift </li></ul><ul><li>warm water arrives at South America </li></ul><ul><li>around Christmas – hence El Nino – </li></ul><ul><li>for the Christ Child </li></ul>
  7. 12. Effects of El Nino <ul><li>upwelling along Peru reduced </li></ul><ul><li>warm water with few nutrients rises </li></ul><ul><li>fisheries decline </li></ul>
  8. 13. Effects of El Nino <ul><li>increased precipitation over parts of </li></ul><ul><li>South America, western and </li></ul><ul><li>southern U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>can result in severe flooding </li></ul><ul><li>drought in Australia, Indonesia, </li></ul><ul><li>Phillipenes </li></ul><ul><li>reduction in annual monsoons in India </li></ul><ul><li>can result in severe crop damage </li></ul><ul><li>severe property damage and thousands </li></ul><ul><li>of deaths </li></ul>
  9. 14. La Nina <ul><li>opposite El Nino </li></ul><ul><li>swings the other way and winds blow </li></ul><ul><li>more than normal towards west </li></ul>

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