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    El nino powerpoint El nino powerpoint Presentation Transcript

    • El Nino mass of warm surface water moving west to east across equatorial Pacific Ocean part of larger phenomenon called El Nino – Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
      • winds move from areas of high
      • pressure to areas of low pressure
      • ex: air from balloon exits balloon
      • normal situation over Pacific Ocean
      • (non-El Nino year):
      • low pressure over Asia
      • high pressure over South America
      • winds blow east to west
      • shallow thermocline along South
      • America, lots of upwelling, cold water
      • at surface
      • deeper thermocline near Asia, warm
      • surface water piles up
    •  
    •  
      • El Nino years over Pacific Ocean:
      • pressure change = Southern Oscillation
      • higher pressure over Asia
      • lower pressure over South America
      • winds weaken or blow west to east
      • thermocline deepens along South
      • America, little upwelling, warmer water at surface
      • warm surface water sloshes back along equatorial Pacific
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • sea surface temperature in Pacific Ocean
      • El Nino occurs every 3 to 8 years
      • usually lasts about 1 year
      • scientists do not know why pressure
      • changes causing winds to shift
      • warm water arrives at South America
      • around Christmas – hence El Nino –
      • for the Christ Child
    • Effects of El Nino
      • upwelling along Peru reduced
      • warm water with few nutrients rises
      • fisheries decline
    • Effects of El Nino
      • increased precipitation over parts of
      • South America, western and
      • southern U.S.
      • can result in severe flooding
      • drought in Australia, Indonesia,
      • Phillipenes
      • reduction in annual monsoons in India
      • can result in severe crop damage
      • severe property damage and thousands
      • of deaths
    • La Nina
      • opposite El Nino
      • swings the other way and winds blow
      • more than normal towards west