The British Conquest of North America• Fighting broke out between Britain and France to control the Ohio Valley in 1754 – This was along the western boundary of the Thirteen Colonies• This dispute turned into a fight for the whole continent• By 1756 the fight had gone global and nine European countries had chosen sides• In 1760 Britain seized control of Quebec• Britain also took control of the French colony of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean
Treaty of Paris• The war ended in 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris• The treaty allowed France to keep the colony of Guadeloupe and a small base in North America – The islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon• In the treaty they also gave up its other claims in North America to Britain and Spain
History Happens• Read “It Only Lasted an Hour” on page 156• Read “The Battle of the Plains of Abraham” on page 157. – Answer questions 1 and 2
Britain’s Victory: Change and Challenge• The Treaty of Paris was signed in order to end the Seven Year War• France had to give up almost all of its claims to North America under the Treaty of Paris• In the negotiations for the Treaty of Paris, France made Britain guarantee that they wouldn’t retaliate against any of the French allies• They also made sure that the people of New France would still be able to practice their religion
The Visit from Pontiac• Pontiac was the leader of the Odawa• The Odawa were part of the Anishinabe nation and were a long time ally of the French• He spread word from village to village trying to get people of the First nations to join together and fight the British.• His reasoning was to try to maintain their claim to the land which they believed was left to them by their ancestors.
The Last Governor of New France• The last governor of New France was Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial• He was forced to give up New France in the negotiations in the Treaty of Paris• He was the one who surrendered to the British in 1760• He surrendered because he felt France couldn’t win, and that the population had already suffered enough• Vaudreuil was arrested for surrendering and spent several weeks in prison• France withdrew from New France, but the Canadiens remained because that was their home
The Royal Proclamation of 1763• This was Britain’s attempt to create everlasting peace• A proclamation is a statement of law and policy• They set this proclamation a few months after Pontiac began to organize the First Nation’s resistance
Proclamation’s Aim to Assimilate the Canadiens• Establish the Province of Quebec – The province would have a British style government with a governor and appointed council• They also promised an elected assembly, but Britain didn’t come through with this promise for almost thirty years• They disallowed Catholics from holding positions in government• Abolished French civil law (the relationship between seigneurs and habitants, and the tithes (taxes that supported the Catholic church)• Encouraged settlers from the Thirteen Colonies to move to Quebec – They did this by disallowing free movement west
Proclamation’s Aim to Make Peace with the First Nation• Started by setting a proclamation line that separated the Thirteen Colonies from “Indian Territory”• They would not allow settlements in the “Indian Territory” until the First Nations came to an agreement about these lands with Britain
The Quebec Act of 1774• By 1776 the Thirteen Colonies were at war with Britain, trying to become an independent country – This was the American War of Independence• This brought issues of identity into focus, just like it did with the Acadians• Unlike during the Seven Year War, the British looked at the French Canadiens in a different light – They no longer saw them as enemies, but as potential allies
• The Royal Proclamation of 1763 made it clear that Britain expected the Canadiens to assimilate – They hoped the Canadiens would choose to become British on their own• However, the Canadiens did not give up their language, custom, or religion
• The Canadiens had little in common with the British rulers• They were not allowed to participate in government because they were Catholic, and Britain still had not set up the elected assembly they promised in the Royal Proclamation of 1763
• By 1774, the population in Quebec was larger than 70,000 people• Not many British people lived in this colony
• Britain decided to return some of the French Canadiens rights that the Royal Proclamation of 1763 had taken away• They did this by passing the Quebec Act of 1774• The act ensured that French language and Canadien culture were maintained.
What the Act Ensured• Allowed Catholic people in Quebec to practice their religion• Allowed Canadiens to hold government positions, only after they swore the Oath of Allegiance to Britain• Reinstated the French Civil Law that the Royal Proclamation of 1763 had taken away• Extended the boundaries of Quebec beyond the proclamation line – Britain changed these boundaries without consulting the First Nations people, even though the Royal Proclamation of 1763 required consultation