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  • 1. Chapter 4:The Exchange of Ideas
  • 2. Galileo During this era it was always believed that what the church said was true, few people dared to challenge the church The church said that the earth was the centre of the universe One man, Galileo, challenged the church by saying that the sun was the centre of the universe, not the earth
  • 3. Heresy The church was not pleased with Galileo’s observation and charged him with heresy  Heresy is when someone opposes the churches teachings Galileo was now faced with two options  Galileo had to give up his views and make a statement where he explained that he was wrong or he might be tortured or burned alive Galileo issued a statement saying that he was wrong and was placed under house arrest
  • 4. “Eppur si muove” After making his statement it is believed that Galileo whispered the words “eppur si muove” which means “but it [the Earth] still moves
  • 5. Science Attitudes towards science changed during the Renaissance Thinkers expanded the text they read Because of importance placed on humanism people were encouraged to question and experiment The concept of a Scientific Method emerged  This is the process of making observations, experimenting, and drawing conclusions based on evidence
  • 6. Science In order to study science you would have to read books written by scholars from Classical or Islamic civilizations People were not to ask any questions about science that went against he church belief  Example: Galileo stated that the sun was the centre of the earth and was accused of heresy
  • 7. Astronomy Turn to page 81 in your book to see how Galileo built on the astronomical beliefs of earlier scholars.
  • 8. Medicine During this time doctors didn’t know much about the human anatomy (the bodily structure), or the causes of diseases Common treatments were based on astrology, superstition, bloodletting, and applying leaches Midwives and others with knowledge of traditional and herbal remedies played an important role in treating the sick. During the Renaissance medical knowledge grew – especially in anatomy and surgery
  • 9. Anatomy Before the Renaissance it was illegal to dissect the human body During the Renaissance the laws were changed and it was made legal in many Italian cities A professor at the University of Padua, Andreas Vesalius, dissected bodies in the lecture hall while his students watched in an attempt to teach his students about the human body From the dissection of human bodies knew knowledge was found and medical discoveries were being made
  • 10. Mathematics During the Renaissance the mathematical works of ancient mathematical scientists were studied Euclid theories on geometry were studied, and late al- Khwarizmi’s theories on algebra were also studied People like Leonardo da Vinci believed that math was the basic tool for understanding the universe Math also played a role in Europe’s changing economy  As trade and commerce grew, knowledge of mathematics became essential for members of the merchant class  why?
  • 11. Filippo Brunelleschi What is perspective? Perspective had been known in ancient times, yet there was no record of it Filippo Brunelleschi rediscovered the mathematical theory of perspective He used this theory to show how the buildings he was planning would look when they were finished
  • 12. Brunelleschi’s Techniques Brunelleschi developed his technique through experimentation and by applying mathematical principles by: 1. Painting over a reflection of a building called the Baptistery on the surface of a mirror 2. Then, in order to prove that his painting was identical to the Baptistery, he drilled a small peephole in the painted mirror and stood in front of the Baptistery 3. He looked through the peephole in the back of the painted mirror and held up a blank mirror to block his view of the Baptistery. The blank mirror reflected his painted image 4. By moving the blank mirror in and out of the way, he could see that his painted image was identical to the actual building.
  • 13. Political and ReligiousLeadership Isabella D’Este was known as “the first lady of the world” She was one of the few women who received a fine classical education She married the Duke of Mantua and their court became a centre of learning, music, and the visual arts Because the Duke was often away on military campaigns she ruled the city-states while he was away
  • 14. The Scientific Ruler Niccolò Machiavelli used his observations to learn about the natural world He spent his time observing people and governments These observations led him to new ways of thinking about leadership and power He wrote a book called The Prince where he explained his conclusions about the best way to govern He wrote “It is a good general rule about men, that they are ungrateful, fickle, liars and deceivers, fearful of danger and greedy for gain”  He had the courage to write exactly what he thought about the civilizations, and even to this day scholars continue to argue about his theories
  • 15. Niccolò Machiavelli Machiavelli’s ideas concerning how leaders must sometimes act in order to protect their power and state (pg. 89): “It needs to be understood that a prince, and especially a prince recently installed [place in power], cannot observe all those qualities which make men good, and it is often necessary in order to preserve the state to act contrary to faith, contrary to mercy, contrary to humaneness, and contrary to religion” “In actions of all men, especially princes, where there is no recourse to justice, the end is all that counts. A prince should only be concerned with conquering or maintaining a state…”
  • 16. Class Discussion What do you think about Machiavelli’s ideas about what people are like? What do you think about how rulers sometimes need to behave?
  • 17. Changing Leadership in theChurch During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in Europe Church leaders believed that they were responsible for more than the religious well being of the people Some people considered the Church to be the natural leader in all areas of society—political and business aspects included Members of the church started to abuse their power for their own well being
  • 18. Savonarola Girolamo Savonarola was a monk who belonged to the Dominican order He dedicated his life to fighting against the corruption in the Church and in society He was considered the unofficial leader in Florence He even went as far as accusing pope Alexander VI of corruption Under his direction, in 1497, the citizens of Florence built a huge “bonfire of vanities” in town square where they burnt all their wigs, make-up, fancy clothing, art, and books. He believed that these things kept peoples attention away from God
  • 19. Savonarola Because of his actions against the pope, Savonarola was excommunicated (officially excluded from the Church) By this time the people of Florence were growing tired of his sermons and turned against him In 1498, Savonarola was tried for heresy, found guilty, and executed
  • 20. Class Activity Read Savonarola’s Views on page 93 of the text book What are Savonarola’s criticisms of the Church? Why did some Church officials want to silence Savonarola?
  • 21. Martin Luther Martin Luther was a German monk He was influenced by humanist actions Concerned with the way things were, he started to study the bible himself He came to the conclusion that the Bible, not the Church, should be a Christian’s true spiritual guide
  • 22. Martin Luther Luther was also upset by the wealth of the Church, but more importantly, he was upset about how they obtained the money The Church was selling indulgences (certificates that reduced the time people would be punished for their sins after they died). In 1517, Luther wrote his Ninety-Five Theses, which criticized the selling of indulgences, on the door of a Church in Wittenberg His Ninety-Five Theses were printed and passed out throughout Germany
  • 23. Martin Luther Pope Leo X was not happy with Luther’s Ninety-Five These and issued a “bull” (official order) condemning Luther and banned his work Luther took this “bull” and burnt it in public Luther was then called before the emperor at an Imperial Diet (assembly) in 1521 in the city of Worms He was asked to give up his ideas, but Luther refused to back down Because of his refusal, Emperor Charles V declared Luther an outlaw who could be killed Luther then went into hiding
  • 24. The Protestant Reformation Martin Luther translated the Bible into the vernacular This allowed regular citizens access to read the Bible in their own home When Luther broke off from the church many German citizens followed him This was known as the Protestant Reformation A new Church was started in Northern Europe known as the Lutheran Church It didn’t take long for Luther’s ideas to spread across Europe Luther’s followers were known as Protestants
  • 25. The Catholic Counter-Reformation The Protestant Reformation caused the Catholic Church to lose a lot of its authority and membership Pope Paul III called a series of meetings known as the Council of Trent At this council the Church examined its policies – this was known as the “Catholic Counter- Reformation” Because of these meetings the corruption among the higher clergy was cleaned up and priests were given a better education
  • 26. The Catholic Counter-Reformation Religious orders were established that focused mainly on converting people to Catholicism Ignatius Loyola founded an order known as the Society of Jesus  His followers were known as Jesuits Jesuit missionaries were very active among the Wendat (Huron) during the early days of European settlement in Canada
  • 27. The Printing Press At the beginning of the Renaissance most people were illiterate (couldn’t read) Only the most educated people could read an write In order to be literate you would have to know Latin or Greek  This is because most of the writings being studied were written in these languages In 1450 a German man named Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press that allowed books to be produced quickly and at a low cost This allowed for ideas to be spread quickly throughout Europe, and made it more affordable to purchase books
  • 28. Spread of Knowledge By the early 1500’s there were over 6 million books in print in Europe Books allowed the exchange of knowledge in Europe that had never been seen before Middle class people were now able to afford these books so they began to read, discuss, and eventually write about the exciting ideas of their times Books were now being printed in the vernacular rather than in Latin and Greek Writers started making money from the books they wrote which allowed them the freedom to travel to universities where they spread their ideas