Physical Evil• There are physical evils that are not caused by anyone/anything, but just part of earthly life. • Natural events - Tornadoes, earthquakes, floods, f ires, etc.
Moral Evil• Moral evil is the result of human choice. –A choice for evil is a sin. –All moral evil can be avoided. –Both the agent and the recipient are harmed by moral evil.
Definitions of Sin• Augustine: Sin is any deed, word or desire against eternal law.• Aquinas: Sin is the voluntary transgression of the divine moral law.• Aquinas: Sin is a turning away from God, to creatures in a disordered way.
Sin is a Personal Act• Sin is a human act, therefore a person isalways responsible for his/her sins.
Five Classifications of Sin 1. Original or Actual 2. Mortal or Venial 3. Formal or Material4. Commission or Omission 5. Internal or External
Five Classifications of Sin1. Original or Actual • Original Sin committed by Adam and Eve • Actual Sin committed by individuals
Five Classifications of Sin • Gravity: Moral or Venial– Venial sins are lesser sins, but by repetition can lead to mortal sin and/or a life a vice • Mortal Sin requires three things: • Grave Matter • Full knowledge of the sinfulness of the act • Complete consent – act is committed freely and deliberately
Five Classifications of Sin Formal or Material (Consider Intent) • Formal sin is a voluntary and freely chosen action contrary to God’s law: carries culpability• Material sin is an involuntary action without either full knowledge or fulldeliberation – does not have culpability.
Five Classifications of Sin Commission or Omission–Commission is choice to do an evil act–Omission is choice not to do something that you should (help a person in danger, attend Mass)
Five Classifications of Sin Manifestation: Internal or ExternalExternal sin is committed with words or actionsInternal sin is committed with thought or desire
Occasion of Sin• Along with avoiding sin, one also has the obligation to avoid occasions of sin: any person, place or thing that will likely lead to sin. Avoid temptations that will likely lead to sin.
Cooperation in Evil• Formal cooperation: agreeing with or cooperating in the commission of evil – Explicit – Implicit Material cooperation – helping another do an act that is not in of itself evil but helps another do evil. Immediate Mediate: proximate and remote
Effects of Sin• Weakening/ break in love of God – Those who sin are called to conversion and forgiveness
Sacraments of Forgiveness• BAPTISM is the primary sacrament of forgiveness – all sin: original, venial and mortal is forgiven in Baptism• For sins committed after Baptism, the Sacrament of Reconciliation is the ordinary path to forgiveness and should be received regularly.
Justification• Justification is possible because of Christ’s Passion and Death. – We receive justification at Baptism • Justification is the remission of sins, sanctification of the person and the voluntary reception of grace and gifts.
Contrition• Sincere sorrow for having offended God. – Perfect contrition immediately forgives sin- sorry because we have offended God – Imperfect contrition with sacramental absolution forgives sin – sorrow because of shame, or because we fear the punishment for our sins.
Conversion• Christ is always willing to forgive us – Parable of Prodigal Son is best example of the power of conversion.
List the sins mentioned in these writings of St. Paul • Romans 1:29-31; 13:13 • 1 Cor 5:10-11; 6: 9-10 • 2 Cor 12:20-21 • Gal 5: 19-21 • Eph 4:31; 5:3-5 • Col 3: 5-8 • 1Tm 1:9-10; 4:12; 6: 9-11 • 2 Tm 3:2-5 • Ti 3:3