Thompson C Presentation


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ADHD literature review presentation

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  • Discuss theories of causation: genetics, parenting, nutrition, environmental factors, brain injuries, prenatal care, and sugar intake
  • Dopamine levels contribute to novelty seeking behavior, similar to behaviors of ADHD – this is why researchers are interested in these genes for a cause for ADHD
  • ADHD is rooted in the processes of this area of the brainMutations have a negative influence on proteins of dopamine neurons, leading to brain dysfunctionsPeople with damage to the frontal lobe have the same symptoms as people with ADHD (Schmidt & Petermann study)
  • Hartmann thinks that characteristics of ADHD should not be labeled as a disorder, rather looked at as the highly adaptive and useful skill that our hunter-gathers needed to survive.DRD4 dominant gene used for the success of our hunter ancestors – beneficial in scanning environment (today = distraction)/ making snap decisions in high-stimulating environment (today=impulsive & hyperactive)Symptoms should be used to cultivate creativity and self-confidence, we need to reframe and not label
  • Even though studies have found much support for the cause of ADHD being genetics, the findings aren’t robust, according to the Barr et al. studySince ADHD is so complex, much more research is needed – we will examine this in the later slides
  • Mercury is a highly toxic chemical that is known to cause harm to our health if exposed or ingested (even at low levels)It is absorbed from the lungs into the bloodstream, severely affecting the central nervous system, especially in the first few years of a developing child
  • -According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry – pregnant women and their fetuses are especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of mercury because it readily passes from the placenta to the fetus-Inadequate parenting is only a small factor in ADHD – parenting to protect child from brain damage, malnutrition, food additives and allergies
  • Zinc is essential for metabolic processes of the elimination of mercury in our bodies, helping decrease the risk for ADHDAlso it is important to avoid overconsumption of processed foods for a healthy brain as well as a healthy body
  • According to the study by Durston et al. in 2009, essential nutrients are necessary for proper functioning of the central nervous system and play a role in the maintenance of normal neuronal plasticity (the ability for neurons to rebuild)
  • Positional cloning is finding the position of susceptibility genes based on sharing of chromosomal regions in people with ADHD (Barr et al., 2009)Other genes that could contribute to ADHD
  • Thompson C Presentation

    1. 1. Paying Attention to the Etiology of ADHD<br />Christina Thompson<br />
    2. 2. Affects 3% to 7% of the school-age population, with more occurrence in boys (Centers for Disease Control & Protection, 2009)<br />ADHD has a genetic predisposition and can further be activated by environmental factors, improper prenatal care and nutrition.<br />ADHD<br />
    3. 3. DOPAMINE RECEPTOR GENES<br />DRD1 – DRD5, especially DRD4<br />DNA sequences have a negative influence on proteins of dopamine neurons, leading to dysfunctions of the brain(Schmidt & Petermann, 2009)<br />Genetics<br />
    4. 4. FRONTAL LOBE<br />Cerebral cortex andsubcorticalstructures (Shelley & Rosen, 1996)<br />Injury and damage<br />Mutations in DNA sequence (Schmidt & Petermann, 2009)<br />Genetics<br />
    5. 5. Genetics<br />THE “EDISON” GENE THEORY<br />The Edison Gene: ADHD and the gift of the hunter child by Thomas Hartmann<br />Hunting and gathering ancestors<br />A positive outlook<br />Focus on our children growing into happy healthy adults<br />Get rid of labels!<br />
    6. 6. Genetics<br />OPPOSING ARGUMENTS<br />Hartmann’s views are taken lightly<br />Genetic findings are not robust (Barr et al., 2001)<br />ADHD is a complex disorder<br />
    7. 7. TOXINS & MERCURY EXPOSURE<br />Contamination:<br />air, water, food, soil, and direct contact<br />Dangerous affects:<br /> learning disabilities<br /> insomnia<br /> memory impairments<br />Environmental Factors<br />
    8. 8. PRENATAL CARE & PARENTING<br />Proper nutrition<br />Avoid smoking, alcohol and drugs<br />Protection from toxins and <br /> dangerous activities<br />Environmental Factors<br />
    9. 9. NUTRITION<br />Zinc deficiency:<br />High Fructose Corn Syrup<br />Artificial food coloring<br />Food additive<br />Environmental Factors<br />
    10. 10. NUTRITION<br />Maintenance of normal neuronal plasticity:<br />Essential nutrients<br />Trace minerals<br />Amino acids<br />Fatty acids<br />Environmental Factors<br />
    11. 11. What is in store for the future of ADHD?<br />
    12. 12. What still needs to be researched?<br />Positional cloning<br />Candidate genes<br />Advances in brain scans and imagery<br />