What is a music video?• A music video is a short film which incorporates a song and imagery, together and is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. • Music videos today are primarily made and used as marketing devices, which are intended to promote the sale of music for various artists.• The origins of the music video dates back to early 20th century and become very important in the 1980s, when MTV a music TV channel was launched and based their format around the medium of music videos.• Before the 1980s, music videos were described as "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional (promo) film", "promotional clip" or "film clip".
Techniques used inMusic Videos• Music videos use a wide range of styles of film making techniques, including animation, live action filming, documentaries, and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.• Some music videos blend different styles together, for example animation and live action.• Many music videos do not translate any images from the songs lyric.• Other music videos may be without a set concept, being merely a filmed version of the songs live performance.
Music Video Audiences• The way music videos have been watched by audiences has changed over time and can be summarized into three main sources;3. 1920’s – 1950’s - seen mainly in musical films6. 1960’s – 1990’s – seen mainly on TV on TV shows like Top of the Pops and TV channels like MTV9. 2000 + – seen mainly on the Internet from sites like YouTube.
How music Videos havechanged.• The author ‘Saul Austerlitz’ suggests in his book ‘Money for Nothing: A History of the Music Video ’. The music video made its climaxes in the 90’s with big blockbuster clips from the biggest acts like Gun N’ Roses, Michael Jackson, Madonna and Aerosmith grabbing the last moments of the music video’s culture significance.• He also suggests music videos raised the profile of other genres like Hip-Hop and alternative rock which transformed the era of music video with giving credit to the directors firsts seen in 1992 when credits like movie credits were seen at the end of music videos.• This made careers for the directors of music videos, directors like, Spike Jonze and Hype Williams.
Connecting with audiences in the 21st century• The era of YouTube and blogs have revolutionized the way the audiences see music videos and interaction between bands, directors and fans.• In 2010 Lady Gaga’s music video views reaching one billion views.• Her song ‘Poker Face’ sees 375 million alone around the world the views of watching music videos online reached 34 billion.• In the month of May there was an• estimated 183 million views.
Music Video Timeline
• 1941: A new invention hits clubs and bars in the USA. The invention is called a jukebox that plays short video clips along with the music.• 1956: Hollywood discovers the genre of music-centered films. Then a wave of rocknroll films begins which includes; Rock Around the Clock, Dont Knock the Rock, Shake, Rattle and Rock, Rock Pretty Baby, The Girl Cant Help It, and Elvis Presley. • Some of these films integrated musical performances from the
• 1962: British Television creates an original form of music television. Shows like Top Of The Pops, Ready! Steady! Go! and Oh, Boy became huge hits.• 1964: The US-Television market adapts the idea of music shows. ‘Hullabaloo’ is one of the first music shows to come on US Television. Then followed by ‘Shindig!’ and ‘American Bandstand’. The Beatles star in ‘A Hard Days Night’ film.
• 1965: The Beatles video tape ten black and white films, which are used as promotional videos for their album releases. This kicks off the new wave of artist’s promotion their songs through video. • 1966: The first theoretical promos are aired, for the Beatles "Paperback Writer" and "Rain". Early in 1967, even more ambitious videos are released for "Penny Lane" and "Strawberry Fields Forever".• 1968: The Rolling Stones collaborate with Jean- Luc Goddard on Sympathy for the Devil• 1970: The record industry discovers these music shows on TV as a great opportunity to promote their artists and their music. So the record industry focused on producing short "Promos", early music videos, which started to replace the live performance of the artist on the TV-stage.• 1975: The Queen track "Bohemian Rhapsody" became a music video and was a ground-breaking music video. Which was released by Queen marked the beginning of the video era and set the
• 1979: Devo releases "The Day My Baby Gave Me a Surprise". This music video was the first music video to include computer animation and traditional animation.• 1980: "Ashes to Ashes" which is considered as a ground-breaking video is released by David Bowie.
• 1981: The music video ‘Video Killed the Radio Star’ by The Buggles airs on MTV as the first shown on television. • 1981: MTV, the first 24- hour satellite music channel, launches and it rapidly became a major hit and cultural icon.
• 1981: Michael Nesmith wins the first ever music video Grammy with Elephant Parts.• 1983: Night Tracks debuted on Superstation WTBS with up to 14 hours of music videos each weekend by 1985. This allowed nearly all U.S. households with Cable TV to view music videos regularly as MTV still wasnt as widely available.• 1983: Friday Night Videos debuted on the US network channel NBC television network, allowing nearly all U.S. households to view music videos regularly.• 1984: Michael Jacksons short film Thriller is released, changing the concept of music videos forever. The Making of Thriller home video was also released in 1984. It was the first ever video about the making of a music video and gave the fans access to behind the scenes of music videos.
• 1986: "Sledgehammer", the ground-breaking video from Peter Gabriel, is first shown.
• 1989: Madonnas controversial video for Like a Prayer is released.
• 1991: Nirvana release the "Smells Like Teen Spirit" video changing the MTV platform from glam rock to alternative rock, and catapulting grunge and Kurt Cobain into the American and Worldwide mainstream. This allowed different types of music video to be played.• 1992: MTV begins to give credit to the directors of music videos.• 1992: Guns N Rosess ground-breaking video for "November Rain" is released and remains as one of the costliest ever produced.• 1995: The music video ‘Scream’ was ranked the most expensive music video of all time, costing £7 million to produce. This music video was directed by Mark Romanek and the artists were Michael and Janet Jackson.
• 2005: iTunes makes it possible for listings, viewings and downloading television shows, full-length movies and music videos. Then 20 days later music video downloads reached 1 million. • 2005 YouTube was launched. • 2006: The Norwegian unsigned band Rektor makes the world’s first playable videogame music video game.• 2010: Around the world the views of watching music videos reached 34 billion. In the month of May there was an estimated 183 million views.