AS MediaSecondary ResearchHorror Films By Madeleine Stidder
History of Horror 1890 – 1929 European films 1890’s – films were amateur and made little or no profit from the screening . 1890 – George Mêlées’ the French film maker made silent ‘monster movies’. 1896 ‘Le Manoir du diable’ which means in English "The House of the Devil” was released. 1922 – German ‘vampire films’ emerge. F. W. Murnau was the director of an unauthorized adaptation of Bram Stokers Dracula in 1922 called ‘Nosferatu’. This famously shocked audiences. 1925 – ‘Phantom of the Opera’ a film where the audience is draw into looking at a grotesque creature even though they shouldn’t. 1929 – Wall Street crash effected movie making internationally and many movies were put on hold.
History of Horror Early 1930’s Hollywood films 1930’s – Universal Studios create Gothic Horror films (Dracula and Frankenstein). Universals ‘Dracula’ was the first movie with sound but some might argue that this film wasn’t Gothic enough. August 1931 – ‘Frankenstein’ produced and is one of the greatest make-up monsters of all time. These films also included more serious elements and were influenced by the German expressionist films of the 1920s. 1931 – Paramount film ‘DR Jekyll and MR. Hyde’ Director; Rouben. The Mamoulian Irritation filter used by for first time in this movie. 1930’s Warner Brothers did Gangster movies and waxworks horror.
History of Horror Late 1930’s Late 1930’s – sadistic films were made Universal studios produce ‘The old dark house’ James Whale directed. James Whale had full control over the production of, ‘Frankensteins Wife. German film ‘Freaks’, first film to cast real circus people 1939 ‘Son of Frankenstein’ made.
History of Horror 1940’s – 1950’s 1940’s - Sequels to popular earlier horror movies produced. Val Luton became Head of horror at RKO studios. 1942 film ‘Cat People’ produced. ‘Luton bus’ technique used in movies at this time to build up of tension when then something harmless comes. 1945 – Bela Lugosi stars in ‘The return of the Vampire’ 1951 – Dracula stage play on Broadway. Early 1950’s – Horror cinema production ceased in Hollywood after barely 2 decades. 1950 – Alien Invasions (Body Snatchers) movies start to be made.
History of Horror Mid – late 1950’s In the Mid 1950’s horror came to Britain, commonly known as Hammer horror and commonly associated as being camp. Many were filmed in and around the Home Counties. Many films used Bray Film Studios which included an atmospheric late 18th century house. In 1954 popular film ‘The Quartermass Experiment’ was made. In 1957 came ‘The Curse of Frankenstein’. This film was the first film in colour and used shocking violence and gore. Terrence Fisher was the director. 1957 – ‘Night of the Demon’ filmed a supernatural and physiological thriller by Jack Dunure. In 1958 a version of ‘Dracula’ filmed. This was the first film where vampires had fangs and the film had sexual elements. The opening scene was dramatic; ‘Dracula’s tomb has dripping blood this had the affect of stopped people laughing in the audience. Christopher Lee stared as Dracula.
History of Horror 1960’s In the 1960’s Hammer Films continue to be popular from British film studios. 1960’s Hollywood start to produce Psychological Horror, Directors like Alfred Hitchcock and Michael Powell lead the way making psychological horror movies. In 1960 ‘Psycho’ was directed by Alfred Hitchcock and was made cheaply and resourcefully. Great tension is created without showing gore and horror. Hitchcock went on to director films like ‘The Birds’ (1963), Michael Powell directed ‘Peeping Tom’(1960)
History of Horror 1960’s continued At this time budgets tightened, so some team of technicians, worked on a few films in a row. Therefore there was; a single editor (James Needs), scriptwriters and directors rarely changed. 1960 – ‘Black Sunday’ had a mix of violence and sexuality, this was directed by Mario Bava Rodger Corman produced films like; ‘The Fall of the House of Usher’, ‘The Raven’, ‘The Masque of the Red Death’ ‘The Pit and the Pendulum’ is a good film as it shows a slow and conscious death. This film was also directed by Roger Corman. 1961 –1963 – ‘The Haunting’, this film was directed by Robert Wise. The soundtrack contrasts silence and sound to produce fear through suggestion. It is a good effect as this gives the audience sounds and images. 1964 – ‘The Masque of the Red Death’ showed dream life scenes and ‘The Tomb of Ligeia’, used real footage in the ‘Fox hunting scene’ there is no artificial scenery.
History of Horror 1960’s continued Films had to be made cheaply and resourcefully Hammer productions shared some cast and crew members for example in ‘The Reptiles’ and ‘The Plaque of the Zombies’. 1968 – ‘Rosemary’s Baby’ was considered one of the scariest movies. It is about young couple who move into a New York flat, unaware that their neighbours are Satanists This began the move towards Occult horror which continued into the 1970’s.
History of Horror 1970’s Early 1970’s –Occult horror became popular such as ‘The Exorcist’ (1973) Written by William Peter Blatty and directed by William Friedkin. 1973 ‘The Wicker Man’ set on a remote island in Scotland. 1976 – ‘The Omen’ was written by David Seltzer and directed by Richard Donner. These movies were so popular several sequels were made. 1976 – ‘Carrie’ about an abused girl with telekinetic powers was directed by Brian de Palma. 1979 ‘The Amityville Horror’ one family’s allegedly true-life escape from a house haunted by demons, updated the haunted house story.
History of Horror 1970’s continued Also in the early 1970’s Gore fests or splatter films became popular such as ‘The Texas Chainsaw Massacre’ (1974) and Carpenter’s ‘Last House on the Left’ in (1972). 1974 – ‘Texas Chainsaw Massacre’ was directed by Tobe Hooper, this film was inspired by an infamous killer. The main villain is Leather face who became the most iconic monster, since 1940’s. More splatter movies followed including The Hills Have Eyes (1977); I Spit on Your Grave (1978); and Tourist Trap (1979). Late 1970’s – tension filled slasher films such as Carpenter’s ‘Halloween’ (1978) and ‘When a Stranger Calls’ (1979) were made.
History of Horror 1970’s continued Late 1970’s – Zombie movies such as ‘Dawn of the Dead’ 1978 directed by George A. Romero emerge. Zombie movies would continue into the early 1980’s. 1971 – The producer of the film ‘Lust for a Vampire’ said to make a good horror film you need; a lot of murders, a lot of blood, a good villain, a good hero, curtain amount of sex, lots of action and lots of pretty girls. A recipe for Vampire movies. 1977 – ‘Martin’ was another vampire movie directed by George A. Romero.
History of Horror 1980 – 2000+ 1980’s and 90’s – post modern self aware horror from directors Wes Craven and Kevin Williamson films such as Scream’ (1996) and ‘Nightmare on Elm Street’ (1984). Typically in post modern horror movies No-one ever gets a Mobile phone signal and the killer never dies (you think they have but they always come back). In 1999 a new genre of mockumentary horror film emerged starting with the ground breaking ‘Blair Witch Project’. Made cheaply using handheld cameras it showed a very realistic style of filming which blurred the sense of reality and fiction.
History of Horror 1980 – 2000+ Late 1990’s saw Japaneses Horror films being produced such as‘ The Ring’ (1998) and Naked Blood (1996). American remakes of Japaneses Horror become produced such as‘The Ring’. From 2000 onwards American remaking of old horror films ‘Halloween’ has happened. Now films can make millions of pounds when they come out in the cinema.