14 Renewable
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14 Renewable

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    14 Renewable 14 Renewable Presentation Transcript

    • Renewable Sources of Energy
    • Resources
      • Non-Renewable : can not be replenished in a reasonable amount of time
        • Coal
        • Oil (petroleum)
        • Natural Gas
        • Radioactive Elements
      • Renewable : can be replenished in a reasonable amount of time
        • Solar
        • Wind
        • Water (hydroelectric)
        • Biomass
        • Geothermal
        • Hydrogen
    • Renewables:
      • Biomass
      • Hydroelectric
      • Solar
      • Wind
      • Geothermal
      • Hydrogen
    • Biomass Energy
      • Biomass : Consists of the organic material that makes up living organisms
      • Biomass Energy : From plant and animal matter, such as charcoal, wood, manure, crops. These can be burned to generate heat or electricity
      • Biomass Fuels : some biomass can be converted into fuels:
        • Ethanol: from fermentation (corn) -can be added to gasoline and used in “Flex-Fuel” cars
        • Biodiesel: from vegetable oil, grease, animal fat-mixed with ethanol, used in diesel engines
    • Biomass…
      • Methane (as a landfill gas from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter)
      • Biomass can also be vaporized at high temps (anaerobically) to create a mixture of gases: H 2 , CH 4 , CO
      • These gases can be used together in a gas turbine to create electricity, or separately, for ex: H 2
    • Biomass….
      • Benefits
      • Carbon-neutral (carbon produced from burning it is the same carbon used during its production (recent photosynthesis)
      • Geographically balanced
      • Inexpensive
      • No N 2 or S emissions
      • Drawbacks
      • Indoor burning creates pollutants
      • Competes with crops for food
      • Crops require energy to grow
    • Hydropower: The kinetic energy of moving water can turn turbines and generate electricity
      • Benefits
      • Clean
      • Renewable
      • Drawbacks
      • If overused, can become non-sustainable
      • Dams create problems for ecosystems, etc
    • Solar
      • Technologies are still being developed
        • Passive solar energy collection : construction that optimizes the sun’s heat and light
        • Active solar energy collection : utilizes technology to collect and convert solar energy
        • Photovoltaic cell : collects sunlight and converts it into electricity. Can be used directly or stored in a battery. Used in chips, panels, roofing tiles
    • Solar…
      • Benefits
      • Needs no other fuels
      • Individuals (not power companies) can control it
      • No pollution
      • Can sell it back to the grid
      • Drawbacks
      • Still expensive
      • Not all locations have enough sun
      Sales of PV cells up 63% in Japan, up 25% in the US Storage is still difficult
    • Solar Panels Solar Roof Tiles
    • Wind
      • Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of wind into electricity
      • Wind is an indirect form of solar energy
      • Turbines can be small enough to mount on the roof of a house or have a span of a football field
      • Wind speeds offshore are 20% greater
      • http://www.bergey.com/
      • http://www.talcoelectronics.com/c-24-wind-power.aspx?gclid=CPHE99b8opcCFRKAxgodawt1dA
      • http://www.skystreamenergy.com/
    • Wind…
      • Benefits:
      • Very efficient
      • No fossil fuels needed
      • No emissions (except for construction)
      • Drawbacks:
      • Variable winds
      • “ not in my backyard”
      • Threat to birds, bats
      Wind Farm
    • Geothermal
      • From the decay of radioactive elements, under extreme pressure, deep within the earth, that generates heat
      • Underground water can be heated…will rise through natural fissures (cracks) in earth (geysers and natural spas)
      • Can drill down to the heated water and pump it up to the surface
    • Geothermal…
      • Drawbacks:
      • Can release gases trapped in the water--
      • Dependent on location
      • May not be totally renewable if water is pumped out too quickly
    • Hydrogen the simplest and most abundant element
      • Fuel Cells use H 2 to produce electricity
      • Fuel cells were used by NASA in the 1960’s
      • H 2 gas does not exist freely on Earth.
      • The atoms must be released from their compounds
    • Hydrogen from water…
      • Electrolysis : produces pure hydrogen
      • Requires *energy input
      • 2 H 2 O  2 H 2 + O 2
      • Hydrolysis : the reverse process after electricity is produced in the fuel cell
      • 2 H 2 + O 2  2 H 2 O
      * Hydrogen production is only as “clean” as the energy used to obtain it. How a fuel cell works: C:Documents and Settings mrecchia Desktopfuel cell video.htm
    • Hydrogen from other sources…
      • From algae : When certain algae are deprived of light, they produce H 2 at the end of photosynthesis
      • From biomass or fossil fuels :
        • Can be separated from methane (a form of natural gas):
        • CH 4 + 2H 2 O  4H 2 + CO 2
    • Hydrogen Economy?
      • Benefits:
        • Renewable
        • Most abundant
        • Clean
        • Zero-emission
        • As safe as gasoline
      • Drawbacks
        • Leakage could deplete atmospheric ozone
        • Public fear