2008-2009 Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life
Types of cells bacteria cells animal cells plant cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles
Cell size comparison <ul><li>micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter </li></ul><ul><li>diameter of human hair = ~20 micron...
Why study cells? <ul><li>Cells    Tissues    Organs    Bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bodies are made up of cells </li></...
<ul><li>What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ breathe”  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Organelles <ul><li>Organelles do the work of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each structure has a job to do </li></ul></ul><ul...
Cells need power ! <ul><li>Making energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must… </li></ul></ul>...
Cell membrane <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>separates cell from outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controls what ...
cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like materi...
Vacuoles & vesicles <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>moving material  around cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storage...
Food & water storage plant cells animal cells contractile vacuole  central vacuole  food vacuoles
cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like materi...
Lysosomes <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digest food  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clean up & recycle </li></ul></ul...
lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in...
<ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make ATP energy from cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sugar + O ...
lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in...
<ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make energy from sugar + O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cellular respiratio...
Mitochondria are in both cells !! animal cells plant cells mitochondria chloroplast
central vacuole  storage: food,  water or waste mitochondria  make ATP in  cellular respiration chloroplast  make ATP &...
Cells need workers (proteins) ! <ul><li>Making proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to run daily life & growth, the cell must… <...
Proteins do all the work!  cells DNA proteins one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because… proteins do all ...
Nucleus <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control center of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protects DNA </li></ul></...
lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in...
Ribosomes  <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protein factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>read instructions to build ...
lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in...
Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>part of protein factory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helps ...
lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in...
<ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like UPS he...
cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like materi...
DNA RNA ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Golgi  apparatus vesicle protein on its way! protein finished protein Maki...
central vacuole  storage: food,  water or waste mitochondria  make ATP in  cellular respiration chloroplast  make ATP &...
Cells need to make more cells ! <ul><li>Making more cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to  replace ,  repair  &  grow ,  the cell...
Centrioles <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help coordinate cell division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul...
cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like materi...
<ul><li>Cells have 3 main jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need food + O 2 </li></ul>...
2008-2009 That’s my cellular story… Any Questions?
EXTRA SLIDES 2008-2009
Nucleus
Making proteins proteins transport vesicle Golgi apparatus vesicle smooth ER rough ER nuclear pore nucleus ribosome cell m...
Lysosomes  white blood cells attack & eat invading germs = digest them in lysosomes
When things go bad…  <ul><li>Diseases of lysosomes are fatal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzyme not working in lysosom...
But sometimes cells need to die… <ul><li>Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed </li><...
Fetal development 15 weeks 6 weeks syndactyly
Chloroplasts <ul><li>sun energy    ATP & sugars </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthesis   </li></ul>ATP +  water  +  energy   ...
Compare the equations Photosynthesis Respiration glucose  +  oxygen    carbon  +  water  +  energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6...
The Great ENERGY Circle of Life sun ATP Photosynthesis Respiration O 2 glucose sugar CO 2 H 2 O + + plants animals & plants
<ul><li>rough ER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes attached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works on proteins </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Growth & Reproduction We’ll learn about this in a later unit!
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07 Cell Organelle

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  • The genes for rRNA have the greatest commonality among all living things. There is very little difference in the DNA sequence of the rRNA genes in a humans vs. a bacteria. Means that this function (building of a ribosome) is so integral to life that every cell does it almost exactly the same way. Change a base and this changes the structure of the RNA whch causes it to not function.
  • Feedback mechanism There are sensors in the cell that monitor growth. They trigger self-destruct when they sense processes. Brown spots on leaves too. Virus infected plant cell auto-destructs and even cells around it to wall off virus.
  • 07 Cell Organelle

    1. 1. 2008-2009 Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life
    2. 2. Types of cells bacteria cells animal cells plant cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles
    3. 3. Cell size comparison <ul><li>micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter </li></ul><ul><li>diameter of human hair = ~20 microns </li></ul><ul><li>most bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-10 microns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-100 microns </li></ul></ul>Bacterial cell Animal cell
    4. 4. Why study cells? <ul><li>Cells  Tissues  Organs  Bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bodies are made up of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cells do all the work of life! </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ breathe” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gas exchange: CO 2 vs. O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>take in & digest food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remove wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control internal conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respond to external environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build more cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth, repair, reproduction & development </li></ul></ul></ul>The Work of Life ATP
    6. 6. Organelles <ul><li>Organelles do the work of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each structure has a job to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive </li></ul></ul></ul>Model Animal Cell
    7. 7. Cells need power ! <ul><li>Making energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>take in food & digest it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>take in oxygen (O 2 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>remove waste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organelles that do this work… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vacuoles & vesicles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul>ATP
    8. 8. Cell membrane <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>separates cell from outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controls what enters or leaves cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 ,CO 2 , food, H 2 O, nutrients, waste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recognizes signals from other cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows communication between cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>double layer of fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phospholipid bilayer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receptor molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul></ul>lipid “tail” phosphate “head”
    9. 9. cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like material holding organelles in place
    10. 10. Vacuoles & vesicles <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>moving material around cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>membrane sac </li></ul></ul>small food particle vacuole digesting food inside cell
    11. 11. Food & water storage plant cells animal cells contractile vacuole central vacuole food vacuoles
    12. 12. cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles  transport inside cells  storage
    13. 13. Lysosomes <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digest food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clean up & recycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digest broken organelles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>membrane sac of digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul>small food particle vacuole digesting food lysosomes digesting broken organelles
    14. 14. lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles  transport inside cells  storage
    15. 15. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make ATP energy from cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sugar + O 2  ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fuels the work of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>double membrane </li></ul></ul>Mitochondria in both animal & plant cells ATP
    16. 16. lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles  transport inside cells  storage mitochondria  make ATP energy from sugar + O 2
    17. 17. <ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make energy from sugar + O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cellular respiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sugar + O 2  ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make energy + sugar from sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sunlight + CO 2  ATP & sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATP = active energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sugar = stored energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugars </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Plants make energy two ways ! ATP sugar ATP
    18. 18. Mitochondria are in both cells !! animal cells plant cells mitochondria chloroplast
    19. 19. central vacuole  storage: food, water or waste mitochondria  make ATP in cellular respiration chloroplast  make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis cell wall  support cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals lysosome  digestion & clean up cytoplasm
    20. 20. Cells need workers (proteins) ! <ul><li>Making proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to run daily life & growth, the cell must… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>read genes (DNA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>build proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes (speed up chemical reactions) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>signals (hormones) & receptors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organelles that do this work… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>endoplasmic reticulum (ER) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Proteins do all the work! cells DNA proteins one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because… proteins do all the work! signals structure enzymes receptors
    22. 22. Nucleus <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control center of cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protects DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>instructions for building proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nuclear membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleolus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ribosome factory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles  transport inside cells  storage mitochondria  make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 nucleus  protects DNA  controls cell chromosomes  DNA
    24. 24. Ribosomes <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protein factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>read instructions to build proteins from DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 subunits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some free in cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some attached to ER </li></ul></ul>Ribosomes on ER large subunit small subunit
    25. 25. lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles  transport inside cells  storage mitochondria  make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 nucleus  protects DNA  controls cell ribosomes  builds proteins
    26. 26. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>part of protein factory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helps complete the proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>makes membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rough ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes attached </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>works on proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smooth ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>makes membranes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles  transport inside cells  storage mitochondria  make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 nucleus  protects DNA  controls cell ribosomes  builds proteins ER  helps finish proteins  makes membranes
    28. 28. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like UPS headquarters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shipping & receiving department </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ships proteins in vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ UPS trucks” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>membrane sacs </li></ul></ul>Golgi Apparatus transport vesicles vesicles carrying proteins
    29. 29. cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles  transport inside cells  storage mitochondria  make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 nucleus  protects DNA  controls cell ribosomes  builds proteins ER  helps finish proteins  makes membranes Golgi apparatus  finishes, packages & ships proteins lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling
    30. 30. DNA RNA ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Golgi apparatus vesicle protein on its way! protein finished protein Making Proteins TO: nucleus TO: TO: TO:
    31. 31. central vacuole  storage: food, water or waste mitochondria  make ATP in cellular respiration chloroplast  make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis cell wall  support cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals Golgi apparatus  finish & ship proteins nucleus  control cell  protects DNA endoplasmic reticulum  processes proteins  makes membranes lysosome  digestion & clean up cytoplasm ribosomes  make proteins
    32. 32. Cells need to make more cells ! <ul><li>Making more cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to replace , repair & grow , the cell must… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>copy their DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make extra organelles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new “daughter” cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organelles that do this work… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>centrioles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Centrioles <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help coordinate cell division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one pair in each cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ motor” proteins </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. cell membrane  cell boundary  controls movement of materials in & out  recognizes signals cytoplasm  jelly-like material holding organelles in place mitochondria  make ATP energy from sugar + O 2 nucleus  protects DNA  controls cell ribosomes  builds proteins ER  helps finish proteins  makes membranes Golgi apparatus  finishes, packages & ships proteins lysosome  food digestion  garbage disposal & recycling vacuole & vesicles  transport inside cells  storage centrioles  cell division
    35. 35. <ul><li>Cells have 3 main jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need food + O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cellular respiration & photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need to remove wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need instructions from DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need to chain together amino acids & “finish” & “ship” the protein </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make more cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need to copy DNA & divide it up </li></ul></ul></ul>Cell Summary Our organelles do all those jobs !
    36. 36. 2008-2009 That’s my cellular story… Any Questions?
    37. 37. EXTRA SLIDES 2008-2009
    38. 38. Nucleus
    39. 39. Making proteins proteins transport vesicle Golgi apparatus vesicle smooth ER rough ER nuclear pore nucleus ribosome cell membrane protein secreted cytoplasm
    40. 40. Lysosomes white blood cells attack & eat invading germs = digest them in lysosomes
    41. 41. When things go bad… <ul><li>Diseases of lysosomes are fatal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzyme not working in lysosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>picks up food, but can’t digest it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosomes fill up with undigested material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grow larger & larger until disrupts cell & organ function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: Tay-Sachs disease build up undigested fat in brain cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. But sometimes cells need to die… <ul><li>Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some cells have to die for proper development in an organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex : tadpole tail gets re-absorbed when it turns into a frog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex : getting rid of webbing between your fingers during fetal development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ auto-destruct” process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lysosomes break open and kill cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell “suicide” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Fetal development 15 weeks 6 weeks syndactyly
    44. 44. Chloroplasts <ul><li>sun energy  ATP & sugars </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthesis </li></ul>ATP + water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    45. 45. Compare the equations Photosynthesis Respiration glucose + oxygen  carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  + + + + water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  + + +
    46. 46. The Great ENERGY Circle of Life sun ATP Photosynthesis Respiration O 2 glucose sugar CO 2 H 2 O + + plants animals & plants
    47. 47. <ul><li>rough ER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes attached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works on proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>smooth ER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>makes membranes </li></ul></ul>Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum
    48. 48. Growth & Reproduction We’ll learn about this in a later unit!
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