02biochemistry

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02biochemistry

  1. 1. The Chemistry of Life 2006-2007 What are living creatures made of? Why do we have to eat?
  2. 2. <ul><li>96% of living organisms is made of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen (O) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen (H) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen (N) </li></ul></ul>Elements of Life
  3. 3. Organic vs. Inorganic <ul><li>Organic  living material that contains </li></ul><ul><li>carbon (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Glucose (C6H12O6) & Starch </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic  Non-living material (no carbon) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Water (H2O) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide (CO2) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Molecules of Life <ul><li>What are bodies made of? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose (simple sugars)  small </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starch  large </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fats (lipids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA, RNA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Why do we eat? <ul><li>We eat to take in more of these chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food for building materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to make more of us (cells) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for repair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food to make energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>calories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to make ATP </li></ul></ul></ul>ATP
  6. 6. What do we need to eat? <ul><li>Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minerals, salts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of your body is H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water is inorganic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>doesn’t contain carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The rest of your body is made of carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organic = made of carbon & living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins ALL of these </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fats contain carbon! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nucleic acids </li></ul></ul></ul>Don’t forget water
  8. 8. Building large molecules of life <ul><li>Chain together smaller molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building block molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big molecules built from little molecules </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Small molecules = building blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Bond them together = polymers </li></ul>Building large organic molecules
  10. 10. How to build large molecules <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building bigger molecules from smaller molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>building cells & bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>repair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul>+ ATP
  11. 11. How to take large molecules apart <ul><li>Hydrolysis  Digestion  Break Down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>taking big molecules apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>getting raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for synthesis & growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>making energy (ATP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for synthesis, growth & everyday functions </li></ul></ul></ul>+ ATP
  12. 12. Example of digestion <ul><li>Starch is digested into glucose (simple sugars) </li></ul>starch glucose ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP
  13. 13. Example of synthesis <ul><li>amino acids = building block </li></ul>amino acids protein <ul><li>Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids </li></ul>
  14. 14. Any Questions?

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