Module Nine - Space Race - Arms Race


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Module Nine - Space Race - Arms Race

  1. 1. Module Nine
  2. 2. Competition
  3. 3. IX. Space Race
  4. 4. The Space Race was an heated competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, as each side tried to match or better what the other side did in exploring outer space. It involved putting: 1) putting satellites up to orbit the earth, 2) to send man into space, and 3) to land him on the Moon. The Space Race effectively began after the Soviet launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957. What happened because of the success of Sputnik: Sputnik's success and our first rocket launch failure created fear in the United States. It was known as that the period is known as the Sputnik crisis, and people thought The Soviet Union would soon have nuclear weapons flying in space so they could h9it us at any time. Within a year, the United States Congress passed the law creating NASA, as well as the National Defense Education Act, the most far-reaching federally-sponsored education initiative in the nation's history. NASAs Mercury manned space program was initiated by 1959.
  5. 5. Sputnik One
  6. 6. Listening To Sputnik
  7. 7. Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was a Soviet cosmonaut. On 12 April 1961, he became the first human in outer space and the first to orbit the Earth.
  8. 8. The United States's Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon on July 20, 1969. The United States space agency NASA achieved the first manned landing on Earth's Moon as part of the Apollo 11 mission commanded by Neil Armstrong. On July 20, 1969, lunar module Eagle landed on the surface of the Moon, carrying Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. Armstrong was the first human to set foot on the Moon and Aldrin the second. Michael Collins orbited above. Armstrong and Aldrin spent a day on the surface of the Moon before returning to Earth. To this day, twelve people have walked across the Moon's terrain.
  9. 9. 1st Step onto Moon Neil Armstrong July 20, 1969
  10. 10. X. Arms Race
  11. 11. Example Of Arms Race Hydrogen Bomb – Next Generation of Atomic Bomb – “A-Bomb 2G”
  12. 12. The nuclear arms race was a competition for the lead in nuclear weapons between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their allies during the Cold War. During the Cold War, in addition to the American and Soviet nuclear stockpiles, other countries also developed nuclear weapons, though none engaged in warhead production on nearly the same scale as the two superpowers. U.S. and USSR/Russia nuclear weapons
  13. 13. Governments put massiveamounts of time and money to increasing the quality and quantity of their nuclear weapons. Both nations quickly began work on hydrogen bombs and the United States detonated the first such device on November 1, 1952. (They were much more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan.)
  14. 14. Missiles that could travel from one continent to another. They would eventually would have missiles so powerful that they could fire from Nebraska in the U.S. and hit Moscow in the USSR. Nebraska Moscow
  15. 15. •This period also saw attempts begin to defend against nuclear weapons. •Radar to detect incoming bombers and missiles. •Fighters to use against bombers and •Special missile systems that could shoot down other missiles. •Large underground concrete lined caves were constructed to save the leadership of the superpowers, and •Individuals were told to build fallout shelters and taught how to react to a nuclear attack (civil defense). These bombs could killThese bombs could kill millions in the event of anmillions in the event of an attack by either side.attack by either side.
  16. 16. Both sides developed a "second-strike" capability, i.e. they could launch a devastating attack even after sustaining a full assault from the other side (especially by means of submarines). This policy was part of what became known as Mutually Assured Destruction: both sides knew that any attack upon the other would be suicide for themselves as well, and thus would (in theory) refrain from attacking one another. Because of this thinking NO One launched a nuclear attack during The Cold War.
  17. 17. Year Warheads Megatonnage USA USSR USA USSR 1964 6,800 500 7,500 1,000 1966 5,000 550 5,600 1,200 1968 4,500 850 5,100 2,300 1970 3,900 1,800 4,300 3,100 1972 5,800 2,100 4,100 4,000 1974 8,400 2,400 3,800 4,200 1976 9,400 3,200 3,700 4,500 1978 9,800 5,200 3,800 5,400 1980 10,000 6,000 4,000 5,700 1982 11,000 8,000 4,100 7,100 Source: Gerards Segal, The Simon & Schuster Guide to the World Today, (Simon & Schuster, 1987), p. 82 in: Edwin Bacon, Mark Sandle, "Brezhnev Reconsidered", Studies in Russian and East European History and Society (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) Strategic nuclear missiles and throw-weights United States and USSR, 1964-82
  18. 18. Arms Race:Arms Race: Look at the label onLook at the label on the goat.the goat. Who is in danger?Who is in danger? This cartoon was done the time of a Hydrogen Bomb test on an Island in The Pacific named “Bikini Atoll”
  19. 19. Hydrogen Bomb Explosion test
  20. 20. B-52 Stratofortress – One of the delivery vehicles for U.S. nuclear weapons In the event of severe tensions between Superpowers , these planes would be launched just in case we had to deliver missiles
  21. 21. Soviet Bear bomber It was one of the ways in which Soviets could launch nuclear weapons
  22. 22. U.S. Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (I.C.B.M.’s)
  23. 23. I.C.B.M in it’s SiloI.C.B.M in it’s Silo
  24. 24. Nuclear Attack Sub
  25. 25. Soviet Leader U.S. Leader The Point??????