Ep Thinking Like Scientists


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This is an approach I believe can be used to teach both teachers and students to use the metacognitive approach to learning and teaching

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Ep Thinking Like Scientists

  1. 1. Thinking Like Scientists Using the Nature of Science as a Metacognitive Tool Erin E. Peters, NBCT Williamsburg Middle School [email_address]
  2. 2. Seeing the World in a Scientific Way <ul><li>“ All knowledge, all science, thus aims to grasp the meaning of objects and events. . . “ (John Dewey) </li></ul><ul><li>How can we get students to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct meaningful frameworks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think like scientists? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Nature of Science <ul><li>There is something special and unique about the discipline of science </li></ul><ul><li>What is scientific? </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Nature of Science <ul><li>Looking at the Nature of Science (NOS) from three perspectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of science – principles that guide scientists in investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Practical research about how NOS is understood by teachers and taught in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>National standards – resources for NOS </li></ul>
  5. 5. Philosophy of Science <ul><li>Most literature converges on 7 different aspects of science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific knowledge is tentative but durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science has a creative and a subjective component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical, social and cultural factors influence science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical evidence is used to support ideas </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Philosophy of Science (cont.) <ul><ul><li>5. Science and technology impact each other but are not the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Careful data recording is a habit of mind of scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Theories help to connect and explain scientific facts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Resources to Read Handout) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Research about the Practical Side of NOS <ul><li>Implicitly teaching NOS through inquiry has very little effect on students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Lederman, 1999 and Khishfe & Abd-El-Khalick, 2002 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many of the interventions have had some success, but it is somewhat limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bell, Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Even when teachers have a deep understanding of NOS, it is difficult to transfer to classroom activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Southerland, Gess-Newson & Johnston, 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. National Standards <ul><li>National Science Education Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Standards A, B, C, and E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Development Standard A and B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Standard B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benchmarks for Science Literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific World View </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific Inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Scientific Enterprise </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. So HOW do we teach NOS? <ul><li>Connect NOS to something we already teach </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>process skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NOS ≠ process skills </li></ul><ul><li>NOS = WHY we do process skills </li></ul><ul><li>(Connections between NOS and Science Inquiry handout) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Metacognition <ul><li>The ability to think about and evaluate your own way of knowing </li></ul><ul><li>Without metacognitive skills, students have difficulty becoming independent learners </li></ul>
  11. 11. Metacognition and NOS <ul><li>Using metacognitive prompts based on NOS, we can help students develop an idea about how scientists operate </li></ul><ul><li>(NOS as Metacognition handout) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Two reasons to use metacognition and NOS <ul><li>Resolves student conflict that science is a rational endeavor, yet our scientific knowledge continues to change </li></ul><ul><li>Gives students opportunities to see science happening outside the classroom </li></ul>
  13. 13. Example Is you data organized to show a point? Collecting data Name the specific observations on which you base your conclusions. Making conclusions Why are you recording multiple trials? Lab where many trials are recorded Application of NOS Situation
  14. 14. Activity <ul><li>With the table, “Metacognitive Tools using the Nature of Science” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk with the person sitting next to you to identify where you could place some of the questions in the lab “Determining Solubility” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report out to the group </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Ask yourself this . . . <ul><li>If students do not have an understanding of the paradigms which scientists use to guide their ideas and investigations, how can students further their own learning when they leave our classes? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Website for more details <ul><li>Ph.D. Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>http://mason.gmu.edu/~epeters1 </li></ul>