Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY
              (7th Ed)




        Chapter 8
        Learning
     James A. McCubbin, PhD
       Clemson...
Learning
              Learning
                relatively
                 permanent
                 change in an
    ...
Association
 We learn by association
   Our minds naturally connect events that occur
    in sequence
   Aristotle 2000...
Association
      Event 1                     Event 2

                                                      Learning to
...
Classical or Pavlovian
Conditioning

                          We learn
                           to
                   ...
Operant Conditioning

                  We learn to
                   associate a
                   response and
      ...
Classical
Conditioning
                Ivan Pavlov
                  1849-1936
                  Russian
              ...
Pavlov’s Classic
Experiment
                          Before Conditioning

UCS (food
in mouth)
                           ...
Classical
Conditioning

                Pavlov’s device
                 for recording
                 salivation
Classical
Conditioning

 Classical Conditioning
   organism comes to associate two stimuli
   a neutral stimulus that s...
Behaviorism
          John B. Watson
            viewed psychology as
             objective science
               gen...
Classical
Conditioning
 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
   stimulus that unconditionally--automatically
    and naturally--...
Classical
Conditioning

 Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
   originally irrelevant stimulus that, after
    association with an...
Classical
Conditioning
 Acquisition
   the initial stage in classical conditioning
   the phase associating a neutral s...
Classical
Conditioning
   UCS
   (passionate
   kiss)         UCR
                 (sexual
                 arousal)

   C...
Classical
Conditioning
   Extinction
     diminishing of a CR
     in classical conditioning, when a
      UCS does not...
Classical
Conditioning

            Acquisition
 Strength   (CS+UCS)
 of CR
                                        Sponta...
Classical
Conditioning

  Spontaneous Recovery
    reappearance, after a rest
     period, of an extinguished CR
  Gene...
Classical
Conditioning

  Discrimination
    in classical conditioning, the learned
     ability to distinguish between ...
Generalization
Drops of saliva   60
in 30 seconds
                  50

                  40

                  30

      ...
Nausea Conditioning in
Cancer Patients
   UCS
   (drug)
              UCR
              (nausea)


   CS
   (waiting
   ro...
Operant Conditioning
 Operant Conditioning
   type of learning in which behavior is
    strengthened if followed by rein...
Operant Conditioning

   Operant Behavior
     operates (acts) on environment
     produces consequences
   Respondent...
Operant Conditioning

              B.F. Skinner
               (1904-1990)
                elaborated
                 ...
Operant Chamber
             Skinner Box
               chamber with a
                bar or key that an
              ...
Operant Conditioning

   Reinforcer
     any event that strengthens the
      behavior it follows
   Shaping
     oper...
Operant Conditioning
Principles of
Reinforcement

    Primary Reinforcer
      innately reinforcing stimulus
      i.e., satisfies a biologi...
Schedules of
Reinforcement

 Continuous Reinforcement
   reinforcing the desired response each time it
    occurs
 Part...
Schedules of
Reinforcement

  Fixed Ratio (FR)
    reinforces a response only after a
     specified number of responses...
Schedules of
Reinforcement

  Variable Ratio (VR)
    reinforces a response after an
     unpredictable number of respon...
Schedules of
Reinforcement

  Fixed Interval (FI)
    reinforces a response only after a
     specified time has elapsed...
Schedules of
Reinforcement

  Variable Interval (VI)
    reinforces a response at unpredictable
     time intervals
   ...
Schedules of
 Reinforcement
Number of
responses
                Fixed Ratio
        1000
                                V...
Punishment

   Punishment
     aversive event that decreases the
      behavior that it follows
     powerful controlle...
Punishment
Cognition and Operant
Conditioning
 Cognitive Map
   mental representation of the layout of
    one’s environment
   Ex...
Latent Learning
Cognition and Operant
Conditioning

 Overjustification Effect
   the effect of promising a reward for
    doing what one...
Cognition and Operant
Conditioning

 Intrinsic Motivation
   Desire to perform a behavior for its
    own sake and to be...
Operant vs Classical
Conditioning
Observational
Learning

 Observational Learning
   learning by observing others
 Modeling
   process of observing and ...
Observational
Learning

 Mirror Neurons
   frontal lobe neurons that fire when
    performing certain actions or when
  ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Ch8 ppt

3,750

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,750
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
159
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ch8 ppt

  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 8 Learning James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
  2. 2. Learning  Learning  relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
  3. 3. Association  We learn by association  Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence  Aristotle 2000 years ago  John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago  Associative Learning  learning that two events occur together  two stimuli  a response and its consequences
  4. 4. Association Event 1 Event 2  Learning to associate two events Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
  5. 5. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning  We learn to associate two stimuli
  6. 6. Operant Conditioning  We learn to associate a response and its consequence
  7. 7. Classical Conditioning  Ivan Pavlov  1849-1936  Russian physician/ neurophysiologist  Nobel Prize in 1904  studied digestive secretions
  8. 8. Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral UCR stimulus No (salivation) (tone) salivation During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral CS stimulus UCR (tone) (tone) (salivation) CR (salivation)
  9. 9. Classical Conditioning  Pavlov’s device for recording salivation
  10. 10. Classical Conditioning  Classical Conditioning  organism comes to associate two stimuli  a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
  11. 11. Behaviorism  John B. Watson  viewed psychology as objective science  generally agreed-upon consensus today  recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes  not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
  12. 12. Classical Conditioning  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)  stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response  Unconditioned Response (UCR)  unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus  salivation when food is in the mouth
  13. 13. Classical Conditioning  Conditioned Stimulus (CS)  originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response  Conditioned Response (CR)  learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
  14. 14. Classical Conditioning  Acquisition  the initial stage in classical conditioning  the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response  in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
  15. 15. Classical Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual CS arousal) (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal)
  16. 16. Classical Conditioning  Extinction  diminishing of a CR  in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS  in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
  17. 17. Classical Conditioning Acquisition Strength (CS+UCS) of CR Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Extinction (CS alone) Pause
  18. 18. Classical Conditioning  Spontaneous Recovery  reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR  Generalization  tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
  19. 19. Classical Conditioning  Discrimination  in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
  20. 20. Generalization Drops of saliva 60 in 30 seconds 50 40 30 20 10 Hind Pelvis Shoulder Front 0 paw paw Thigh Trunk Foreleg Part of body stimulated
  21. 21. Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea)
  22. 22. Operant Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment  Law of Effect  Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  23. 23. Operant Conditioning  Operant Behavior  operates (acts) on environment  produces consequences  Respondent Behavior  occurs as an automatic response to stimulus  behavior learned through classical conditioning
  24. 24. Operant Conditioning  B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)  elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect  developed behavioral technology
  25. 25. Operant Chamber  Skinner Box  chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer  contains devices to record responses
  26. 26. Operant Conditioning  Reinforcer  any event that strengthens the behavior it follows  Shaping  operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal
  27. 27. Operant Conditioning
  28. 28. Principles of Reinforcement  Primary Reinforcer  innately reinforcing stimulus  i.e., satisfies a biological need  Conditioned Reinforcer  stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer  secondary reinforcer
  29. 29. Schedules of Reinforcement  Continuous Reinforcement  reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs  Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement  reinforcing a response only part of the time  results in slower acquisition  greater resistance to extinction
  30. 30. Schedules of Reinforcement  Fixed Ratio (FR)  reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses  faster you respond the more rewards you get  different ratios  very high rate of responding  like piecework pay
  31. 31. Schedules of Reinforcement  Variable Ratio (VR)  reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses  average ratios  like gambling, fishing  very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
  32. 32. Schedules of Reinforcement  Fixed Interval (FI)  reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed  response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
  33. 33. Schedules of Reinforcement  Variable Interval (VI)  reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals  produces slow steady responding  like pop quiz
  34. 34. Schedules of Reinforcement Number of responses Fixed Ratio 1000 Variable Ratio 750 Fixed Interval Rapid responding near time for 500 reinforcement Variable Interval 250 Steady responding 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time (minutes)
  35. 35. Punishment  Punishment  aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows  powerful controller of unwanted behavior
  36. 36. Punishment
  37. 37. Cognition and Operant Conditioning  Cognitive Map  mental representation of the layout of one’s environment  Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it  Latent Learning  learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  38. 38. Latent Learning
  39. 39. Cognition and Operant Conditioning  Overjustification Effect  the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do  the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
  40. 40. Cognition and Operant Conditioning  Intrinsic Motivation  Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective  Extrinsic Motivation  Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
  41. 41. Operant vs Classical Conditioning
  42. 42. Observational Learning  Observational Learning  learning by observing others  Modeling  process of observing and imitating a specific behavior  Prosocial Behavior  positive, constructive, helpful behavior  opposite of antisocial behavior
  43. 43. Observational Learning  Mirror Neurons  frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so  may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×