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Ch7 ppt

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  • 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 7 States of Consciousness James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
  • 2. Waking Consciousness  Consciousness  our awareness of ourselves and our environments
  • 3. Sleep and Dreams  Biological Rhythms  periodic physiological fluctuations  Circadian Rhythm  the biological clock  regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle, such as of wakefulness and body temperature
  • 4. Premenstrual Syndrome 3 Recalled mood is Negative mood worse than score earlier reported 2 1 Premenstrual Menstrual Intermenstrual Menstrual phase Actual Recalled mood
  • 5. Sleep and Dreams  REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep  recurring sleep stage  vivid dreams  “paradoxical sleep”  muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active  Sleep  periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
  • 6. Sleep and Dreams  Measuring sleep activity
  • 7. Brain Waves and Sleep Stages  Alpha Waves  slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain  Delta Waves  large, slow waves of deep sleep  Hallucinations  false sensory experiences
  • 8. Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep Awake Sleep stages 1 2 3 REM 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hours of sleep
  • 9. Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep Minutes of Decreasing 25 Stage 4 Stage 4 and REM 20 15 Increasing REM 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hours of sleep
  • 10. Sleep Deprivation  Effects of Sleep Loss  fatigue  impaired concentration  depressed immune system  greater vulnerability to accidents
  • 11. Sleep Deprivation Less sleep, More sleep, Accident more accidents fewer accidents frequency 2,800 2,700 4,200 2,600 4000 2,500 3,800 2,400 3,600 Spring time change Fall time change (hour sleep loss) (hour sleep gained) Monday before time change Monday after time change
  • 12. Sleep Disorders  Insomnia  persistent problems in falling or staying asleep  Narcolepsy  uncontrollable sleep attacks  Sleep Apnea  temporary cessation of breathing  momentary reawakenings
  • 13. Night Terrors and Nightmares Sleep stages  Night Terrors Awake  occur within 2 or 1 3 hours of falling 2 asleep, usually 3 during Stage 4 REM 4  high arousal-- 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 appearance of Hours of sleep being terrified
  • 14. Dreams: Freud  Dreams  sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind  hallucinatory imagery  discontinuities  incongruities  delusional acceptance of the content  difficulties remembering
  • 15. Dreams: Freud  Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)  wish fulfillment  discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings  Manifest Content  remembered story line  Latent Content  underlying meaning
  • 16. Dreams  As Information Processing  helps facilitate memories  REM Rebound  REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation
  • 17. Sleep Across the Lifespan
  • 18. Hypnosis  Hypnosis  a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur  Posthypnotic Amnesia  supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis  induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
  • 19. Hypnosis  Unhypnotized persons can also do this
  • 20. Hypnosis  Orne & Evans (1965)  control group instructed to “pretend”  unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones  Posthypnotic Suggestion  suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized  used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors
  • 21. Hypnosis  Dissociation  a split in consciousness  allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others  Hidden Observer  Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
  • 22. Explaining Hypnosis
  • 23. Drugs and Consciousness  Psychoactive Drug  a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood  Physical Dependence  physiological need for a drug  marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms  Psychological Dependence  a psychological need to use a drug  for example, to relieve negative emotions
  • 24. Dependence and Addiction Big effect  Tolerance Drug Response to first exposure  diminishing effect effect with regular use  Withdrawal After repeated exposure, more  discomfort and drug is needed to produce distress that follow same effect discontinued use Little effect Small Large Drug dose
  • 25. Psychoactive Drugs  Depressants  drugs that reduce neural activity  slow body functions  alcohol, barbiturates, opiates  Stimulants  drugs that excite neural activity  speed up body functions  caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
  • 26. Psychoactive Drugs  Hallucinogens  psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input  LSD
  • 27. Psychoactive Drugs  Barbiturates  drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
  • 28. Psychoactive Drugs  Opiates  opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)  opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
  • 29. Psychoactive Drugs  Amphetamines  drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
  • 30. Cocaine Euphoria and Crash
  • 31. Psychoactive Drugs  Ecstasy (MDMA)  synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen  both short-term and long-term health risks  LSD  lysergic acid diethylamide  a powerful hallucinogenic drug  also known as acid  THC  the major active ingredient in marijuana  triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
  • 32. Psychoactive Drugs
  • 33. Trends in Drug Use 80% High school 70 seniors 60 reporting Alcohol drug use 50 40 Marijuana/ hashish 30 20 Cocaine 10 0 1975 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 Year
  • 34. Perceived Marijuana Risk 100% Perceived “great risk of Percent 90 harm” in marijuana use of 80 twelfth 70 graders 60 50 40 Used marijuana 30 20 10 0 ‘75 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 Year
  • 35. Near-Death Experiences  Near-Death Experience  an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death  often similar to drug- induced hallucinations
  • 36. Near-Death Experiences  Dualism  the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact  Monism  the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing