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    Ch3 ppt Ch3 ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture Of Behavior James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
    • Genes: Our Biological Blueprint  Chromosomes  threadlike structures made of DNA that contain the genes  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes  has two strands-forming a “double helix”--held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides
    • Genes: Our Biological Blueprint  Genes  biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes  a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein  Genome  the complete instructions for making an organism  consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes
    • Genes: Their Location and Composition Nucleus Chromosome Gene Cell DNA
    • Evolutionary Psychology  Natural Selection  the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations  Mutations  random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides  the source of all genetic diversity
    • Evolutionary Psychology  Evolutionary Psychology  the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection  Gender  in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female
    • Evolutionary Psychology  Men preferred attractive physical features suggesting youth and health  Women preferred resources and social status
    • Behavior Genetics  Behavior Genetics  study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior  Environment  every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
    • Behavior Genetics Identical twins Fraternal twins  Identical Twins  develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms  Fraternal Twins  develop from separate eggs  genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal Same Same or environment sex only opposite sex
    • Behavior Genetics  Temperament  a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity  Heritability  the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes  may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
    • Behavior Genetics  Interaction  the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity)  Molecular Genetics  the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
    • Environmental Influence  Two placental arrangements in identical twins
    • Environmental Influence  Experience affects brain development Impoverished Rat brain Enriched Rat brain environment cell environment cell
    • Environmental Influence  A trained brain
    • Environmental Influence  Culture  the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next  Norm  an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
    • Environmental Influence  Personal Space  the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies  Memes  self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person
    • The Nature and Nurture of Gender  X Chromosome  the sex chromosome found in both men and women  females have two; males have one  an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child  Y Chromosome  the sex chromosome found only in men  when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
    • The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Testosterone  the most important of the male sex hormones  both males and females have it  additional testosterone in males stimulates  growth of male sex organs in the fetus  development of male sex characteristics during puberty  Role  a set of expectations (norms) about a social position  defining how those in the position ought to behave
    • The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Gender Role  a set of expected behaviors for males and females  Gender Identity  one’s sense of being male or female  Gender-typing  the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
    • The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Gender and Culture
    • The Nature and Nurture of Gender
    • The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Social Learning Theory  theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished  Gender Schema Theory  theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
    • The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Two theories of gender typing