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    Ch14 ppt Ch14 ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 14 Stress and Health James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
    • Stress and Health  Behavioral Medicine  interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease  Health Psychology  subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine
    • Stress and Illness  Leading causes of death in the US in 1900 and 2000
    • Stress and Illness  Stress  the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
    • Stress Appraisal Appraisal Response Threat (“Yikes! This is Panic, freeze up beyond me!”) Stressful event (tough math test) Challenge (“I’ve got to apply Aroused, focused all I know”)
    • Cerebral cortex (perceives stressor) Thalamus Pituitary hormone in the bloodstream stimulates Hypothalamus the outer part of the adrenal gland to release the stress hormone cortisol Pituitary gland Sympathetic nervous system releases the stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from nerve endings in the inner part of the adrenal glands Adrenal glands
    • Stress and Illness The body’s resistance to stress can last only so long before exhaustion sets in  General Adaptation Syndrome Stress resistance  Selye’s concept of the body’s Stressor occurs adaptive response to Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 stress in three Alarm reaction Resistance (cope with Exhaustion (reserves stages (mobilize stressor) depleted) resources)
    • Stressful Life Events  Catastrophic Events  earthquakes, combat stress, floods  Life Changes  death of a loved one, divorce, loss of job, promotion  Daily Hassles  rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, burnout
    • Stressful Life Events  Chronic Stress by Age
    • Perceived Control  Health consequences of a loss of control “Executive” rat “Subordinate” rat Control rat To shock control To shock source No connection to shock source
    • Perceived Control  Equality and Longevity
    • Stress and the Heart  Coronary Heart Disease  clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle  leading cause of death in many developed countries
    • Stress and the Heart Hopelessness 3.5 scores Men who feel extreme hopelessness 3 are at greater risk for heart attacks and early death 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Heart attack Death Low risk Moderate risk High risk
    • Stress and the Heart  Type A  Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people  Type B  Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people
    • Stress and the Heart
    • Stress and Disease  Psychophysiological Illness  “mind-body” illness  any stress-related physical illness  some forms of hypertension  some headaches  distinct from hypochondriasis-- misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
    • Stress and Disease  Lymphocytes  two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system  B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections  T lymphocytes form in the thymus and, among other duties, attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
    • Stress and Disease UCS (drug)  Conditioning of UCR (immune immune suppression) suppression CS UCS (sweetened (drug) water) UCR (immune CS suppression) (sweetened water) CR (immune suppression)
    • Stress and Disease  Negative emotions and health-related consequences Heart disease Persistent stressors Release of stress Immune and negative hormones suppression emotions Unhealthy behaviors Autonomic nervous system effects (smoking, drinking, (headaches, poor nutrition and sleep) hypertension)
    • Promoting Health  Aerobic Exercise Depression 14 No-treatment score group 13  sustained 12 11 10 9 Relaxation treatment exercise that 8 Aerobic group increases heart 7 6 exercise group and lung fitness 5 4 3 Before treatment After treatment evaluation evaluation
    • Promoting Health  Biofeedback  system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state  blood pressure  muscle tension
    • Promoting Health  Modifying Type A life-style can reduce recurrence of heart attacks Percentage 6 of patients Control patients with recurrent 5 Modifying life-style heart attacks reduced recurrent (cumulative 4 heart attacks average) 3 2 Life-style modification patients 1 0 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 Year
    • Promoting Health  Social support across the life span Percentage with high support 100% 90 80 70 60 50 12-14 18-19 25-34 45-54 65-74 15-17 20-24 35-44 55-64 75+ Age in years
    • Life events Personal appraisal Challenge Threat Personality type Easy going Hostile Nondepressed Depressed Optimistic Pessimistic Personality habits Nonsmoking Smoking Regular exercise Sedentary Good nutrition Poor nutrition Level of social support Close, enduring Lacking Tendency toward Health Illness
    • Promoting Health  Predictors of mortality 1 Relative risk 0.8 of dying 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Not smoking Regular exercise Weekly religious attendance Men Women
    • Promoting Health  Religious Attendance
    • Promoting Health  The religion factor is mulitidimensional Healthy behaviors (less smoking, drinking) Social support Better health Religious (faith (less immune system involvement communities, suppression, stress marriage) hormones, and suicide) Positive emotions (less stress, anxiety)
    • Promoting Health  Complementary and Alternative Medicine  unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies
    • Subfields of Alternative Medicine Alternative systems of Health care ranging from self-care according to folk principles, medical practice to care rendered in an organized health care system based on alternative traditions or practices Bioelectromagnetic The study of how living organisms interact with electromagnetic applications (EM) fields Diet, nutrition, The knowledge of how to prevent illness, maintain health, and life-style changes reverse the effects of chronic disease through dietary or nutritional intervention Herbal medicine Employing plan and plant products from folk medicine traditions for pharmacological use Manual healing Using touch and manipulation with the hands as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool Mind-body control Exploring the mind’s capacity to affect the body, based on traditional medical systems that make use of the interconnected- ness of mind and body Pharmacological and Drugs and vaccines not yet accepted by mainstream medicine biological treatments
    • Promoting Health  Smoking-related early deaths 40,000 Number 33,348 of deaths per 100,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1,686 1,135 556 202 Smoking Suicide Vehicle HIV/ Homicide crash AIDS Cause of death
    • The Physiological Effects of Nicotine
    • Promoting Health  Fewer Canadian smokers 60% Percentage Males of Canadians 50 smoking 40 Females 30 20 10 0 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994- 1996- 1995 1997 Year
    • Smoking Prevention  U.S. teen smoking
    • Smoking Prevention  Results of a smoking inoculation program Percentage 20 of students who smoke 15 Control school Fewer teens took up 10 smoking when “inoculated” against it 5 0 School with smoking Prevention program 0 4 9 12 16 21 33 Seventh grade Eighth grade Ninth grade Months of study
    • Obesity and Weight Control  Obesity and body mass index
    • Obesity and Weight Control  Obesity and mortality 2.8 Relative 2.6 risk of 2.4 death 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 18.5 18.5- 20.5- 22.0- 23.5- 25.0- 26.5- 28.0- 30.0- 32.0- 35.0- 40 20.4 21.9 23.4 24.9 26.4 27.9 29.9 31.9 34.9 39.9 Body-mass index (BM I) Men Women
    • Weight Discrimination 7 6 Willingness  When women to hire scale (from1: 5 applicants were definitely not hire to 4 made to look 7: definitely 3 overweight, hire) subjects were less 2 willing to hire 1 0 Women Men Normal Overweight
    • Weight Control  Effects of a severe diet Metabolism: Caloric Body Oxygen intake weight consumption in in in liters calories kilograms per hour per day 165 26 3000 160 25 2000 155 24 150 23 1000 145 22 0 140 21 8 16 24 32 8 16 24 32 8 16 24 32 Days Days Days
    • Weight Control  Trading risks
    • Weight Control  Thinning of Miss America
    • Weight Control 10 Weight 5 Starting point  Most lost change in pounds 0 Normal trend for untreated obese weight is people: Gradually rising weight regained -5 -10 -15 After participation in behavioral Program: Much of initial weight loss regained -20 Post treatment 1 2 3 4 5 Years of follow-up
    • Weight Control Skinfold fat  Obesity was measure (mm) 32 more 30 common 28 among those 26 who watched 24 the most 22 television 20 <2 2-3 >4 Hours of television watched per day in 1990s study Boys Girls