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    Ch12 ppt Ch12 ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 12 Motivation James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
    • Motivation  Motivation  a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior  Instinct  complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
    • Motivation  Drive-Reduction Theory  the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need Need Drive-reducing Drive (e.g., for behaviors (hunger, thirst) food, water) (eating, drinking)
    • Motivation  Homeostasis  tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state  regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level  Incentive  a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one’s  begins at the fullest and unique potential base with Esteem needs Need for self-esteem, physiological achievement, competence, and independence; need for needs that must recognition and respect from others first be satisfied Belongingness and love needs  then higher-level Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid safety needs loneliness and alienation become active Safety needs  then Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable psychological needs become Physiological needs active Need to satisfy hunger and thirst
    • Motivation-Hunger  Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger
    • Motivation-Hunger  Glucose  the form of sugar that circulates in the blood  provides the major source of energy for body tissues  when its level is low, we feel hunger
    • Motivation-Hunger  Set Point  the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set  when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight  Basal Metabolic Rate  body’s base rate of energy expenditure
    • Motivation-Hunger  The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions
    • Motivation-Hunger
    • Eating Disorders  Anorexia Nervosa  when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (>15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve  usually an adolescent female  Bulimia Nervosa  disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
    • Women’s Body Images
    • Sexual Motivation  Sex  a physiologically based motive, like hunger, but it is more affected by learning and values  Sexual Response Cycle  the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson  excitement  plateau  orgasm  resolution
    • Sexual Motivation  Refractory Period  resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm  Estrogen  a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males
    • Forces Affecting Sexual Motivation
    • Sexual Motivation  Same drives, different attitudes
    • Sexual Motivation  Births to unwed parents
    • Sexual Motivation  Sexual Orientation  an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own gender (homosexual orientation) or the other gender (heterosexual orientation)
    • Sexual Motivation
    • Sexual Motivation
    • Motivation at Work  Flow  a completely, involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills  Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology  the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
    • Motivation at Work  Personnel Psychology  sub-field of I-O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development  Organizational Psychology  Sub-field of I-O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
    • Motivation at Work
    • Motivation at Work  Structured Interview  process that asks the same job- relevant questions of all applicants  rated on established scales  Achievement Motivation  a desire for significant accomplishment  for mastery of things, people, or ideas  for attaining a high standard
    • Motivation at Work  Personnel psychologists’ tasks
    • Motivation at Work  360-degree feedback
    • Motivation at Work  On the right path
    • Motivation  Task Leadership  goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals  Social Leadership  group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
    • Motivation  Theory X  assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money  workers should be directed from above  Theory Y  assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity