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  • 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 11 Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
  • 2. Origins of Intelligence Testing  Intelligence Test  a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores
  • 3. Origins of Intelligence Testing  Mental Age  a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet  chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance  child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8
  • 4. Origins of Intelligence Testing  Stanford-Binet  the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test  revised by Terman at Stanford University
  • 5. Origins of Intelligence Testing  Intelligence Quotient (IQ)  defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100  IQ = ma/ca x 100)  on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
  • 6. What is Intelligence?  Intelligence  ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
  • 7. What is Intelligence?  Factor Analysis  statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test  used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score  General Intelligence (g)  factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities  measured by every task on an intelligence test
  • 8. Are There Multiple Intelligences?  Savant Syndrome  condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill  computation  drawing
  • 9. Are There Multiple Intelligences?  Social Intelligence  the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully  Emotional Intelligence  ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
  • 10. Intelligence and Creativity  Creativity  the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas  expertise  imaginative thinking skills  venturesome personality  intrinsic motivation  creative environment
  • 11. Brain Function and Intelligence  People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests Stimulus Mask Question: Long side on left or right?
  • 12. Assessing Intelligence  Aptitude Test  a test designed to predict a person’s future performance  aptitude is the capacity to learn  Achievement Test  a test designed to assess what a person has learned
  • 13. Assessing Intelligence  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)  most widely used intelligence test  subtests  verbal  performance (nonverbal)
  • 14. Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS VERBAL PERFORMANCE General Information Picture Completion Similarities Picture Arrangement Arithmetic Reasoning Block Design Vocabulary Object Assembly Comprehension Digit-Symbol Substitution Digit Span From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977
  • 15. Assessing Intelligence  Standardization  defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”  Normal Curve  the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes  most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
  • 16. The Normal Curve
  • 17. Getting Smarter?
  • 18. Assessing Intelligence  Reliability  the extent to which a test yields consistent results  assessed by consistency of scores on:  two halves of the test  alternate forms of the test  retesting  Validity  the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
  • 19. Assessing Intelligence  Content Validity  the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest  driving test that samples driving tasks  Criterion  behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict  the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
  • 20. Assessing Intelligence  Predictive Validity  success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict  assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior  also called criterion-related validity
  • 21. Assessing Intelligence Football 10 Greater correlation linemen’s 9 over broad range of body weights  As the range of success 8 data under 7 consideration 6 5 narrows, its 4 Little corre- lation within predictive 3 restricted range power 2 1 diminishes 0 180 250 290 Body weight in pounds
  • 22. The Dynamics of Intelligence  Mental Retardation  a condition of limited mental ability  indicated by an intelligence score below 70  produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life  varies from mild to profound  Down Syndrome  retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup
  • 23. The Dynamics of Intelligence
  • 24. Genetic Influences  The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores
  • 25. Genetic Influences  Heritability  the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes  variability depends on range of populations and environments studied
  • 26. Genetic Influences
  • 27. Environmental Influences  The Schooling Effect
  • 28. Group Differences  Group differences and environmental impact Variation within group Variation within group Seeds Poor soil Fertile soil Difference within group
  • 29. Group Differences  The Mental Rotation Test Which two of the other circles contain a configuration of blocks identical to the one in the circle at the left? Standard Responses
  • 30. Group Differences  Stereotype Threat  A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype