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  • 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 10 Thinking and Language James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
  • 2. Thinking  Cognition  mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating  Cognitive Psychologists  study these mental activities  concept formation  problem solving  decision making  judgment formation
  • 3. Thinking  Concept  mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people  Prototype  mental image or best example of a category  matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
  • 4. Thinking  Algorithm  methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem  contrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of heuristics
  • 5. Thinking  Heuristic  simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently  usually speedier than algorithms  more error-prone than algorithms
  • 6. Thinking Unscramble SPLOYOCHYG  Algorithm  all 907,208 combinations  Heuristic  throw out all YY combinations  other heuristics?
  • 7. Thinking  Insight  sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem  contrasts with strategy-based solutions  Confirmation Bias  tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions  Fixation  inability to see a problem from a new perspective  impediment to problem solving
  • 8. The Matchstick Problem  How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
  • 9. The Three-Jugs Problem  Using jugs A, B, and C, with the capacities shown, how would you measure out the volumes indicated?
  • 10. The Candle-Mounting Problem  Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?
  • 11. Thinking  Mental Set  tendency to approach a problem in a particular way  especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
  • 12. Thinking  Functional Fixedness  tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions  impediment to problem solving
  • 13. The Matchstick Problem  Solution to the matchstick problem
  • 14. The Three-Jugs Problem  Solution: a) All seven problems can be solved by the equation shown in (a): B - A - 2C = desired volume.  b) But simpler solutions exist for problems 6 and 7, such as A - C for problem 6.
  • 15. The Candle-Mounting Problem  Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container
  • 16. Heuristics  Representativeness Heuristic  judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes  may lead one to ignore other relevant information
  • 17. Heuristics  Availability Heuristic  estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory  if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common  Example: airplane crash
  • 18. Thinking  Overconfidence  tendency to be more confident than correct  tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments
  • 19. Thinking  Framing  the way an issue is posed  how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments  Example: What is the best way to market ground beef--as 25% fat or 75% lean?
  • 20. Thinking  Belief Bias  the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning  sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid  Belief Perseverance  clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
  • 21. Artificial Intelligence  Artificial Intelligence  designing and programming computer systems  to do intelligent things  to simulate human thought processes  intuitive reasoning  learning  understanding language
  • 22. Artificial Intelligence  Computer Neural Networks  computer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cells  performing tasks  learning to recognize visual patterns  learning to recognize smells
  • 23. Language  Language  our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning  Phoneme  in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
  • 24. Language  Morpheme  in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning  may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)  Grammar  a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others
  • 25. Language  Semantics  the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language  also, the study of meaning  Syntax  the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
  • 26. Language  We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages Percentage able 100 to discriminate 90 Hindi t’s 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hindi- 6-8 8-10 10-12 English- speaking months months months speaking adults adults Infants from English-speaking homes
  • 27. Language  Babbling Stage  beginning at 3 to 4 months  the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language  One-Word Stage  from about age 1 to 2  the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words
  • 28. Language  Two-Word Stage  beginning about age 2  the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements  Telegraphic Speech  early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
  • 29. Language Summary of Language Development Month Stage (approximate) 4 Babbles many speech sounds. 10 Babbling reveals households language. 12 One-word stage. 24 Two-world, telegraphic speech. 24+ Language develops rapidly into complete sentences.
  • 30. Language  Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience activates them as it modifies the brain
  • 31. Language Percentage correct on  New language 100 grammar learning gets test 90 harder with 80 age 70 60 50 Native 3-7 8-10 11-15 17-39 Age at school
  • 32. Language  Linguistic Determinism  Whorf”s hypothesis that language determines the way we think
  • 33. Language  The interplay of thought and language
  • 34. Animal Thinking and Language Direction of nectar source  The straight-line part of the dance points in the direction of a nectar source, relative to the sun
  • 35. Animal Thinking and Language  Gestured Communication
  • 36. Animal Thinking and Language  Is this really language?