M.S.STEVE
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Amal Jyothi College of Engineering, Kanjirapally.
Definition of Power Plant
The assembly of equipments that produces
mechanical energy utilizing the available
energy source...
Classification
•
•
•
•
•

Hydro-electric Power Plant
Thermal (Steam) Power Plant
Diesel Engine Power Plant
Nuclear Power P...
Hydraulic Power Plant
 Plants used to produce electric power from water are
known as hydro electric power plants
 This P...
Main Elements
Storage Reservoir – Natural or artificial.
Dam – Masonry dams, wooden dams, steel dams
Waterways – canal, pe...
Hydraulic Power Plant - General
Layout

M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE

6
M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE

7
Advantages
• Operating cost is minimum compared to other
power plants as no fuel is used
• Low maintenance cost
• Man powe...
Disadvantages
•
•
•
•
•

High initial cost.
Power generation not steady and reliable.
Long distance transmission required
...
Steam – Thermal Power
Plant
A Steam thermal power plant converts the
chemical energy of the fossil fuels (coal,oil,gas)
i...
Main systems of steam thermal plant









Fuel system – coal and ash circuit
Air and gas circuit
Feed water syst...
M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE

12
Components of steam thermal
plant
Boiler
2. Steam turbine
3. Generator
4. Condenser
5. Cooling towers
6. Circulating water...
Advantages
• Less capital cost
• Construction time is low
• Power generation not dependent on nature’s
mercy
• Power plant...
Disadvantages
•
•
•
•
•
•

Power generation cost is high
Part load efficiency is less
Fuel transportation and handling is ...
Diesel Engine Power Plant
•
•
•
•

Utilizing diesel for the power generation.
Capacity of plant – 2 to 50 MW
Mostly used a...
Components
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Engine- generally a 2 stroke engine
Air supply system
Exhaust system
Fuel system
Cooling system
...
M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE

18
Advantages
• More efficient for small capacity power generation than
thermal plant.
• Layout, design and construction of b...
Disadvantages
• Size is limited and very large capacities are not
possible.
• Life is very less.
• Generates heavy noise
•...
Nuclear power plant
• Use atomic energy for power generation
• Heat energy liberated using nuclear reaction.
• Heat produc...
Types of conventional reactors
• Pressurized water reactor (PWR)
• Boiling water reactor (BWR)

M.S.Steve/ Assist. Profess...
Conventional Reactor....
Pressurized water reactor
– The most safe and reliable technology available
– Ordinary water used...
Pressurized water reactor...

M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE

24
Reactor systems used..1
• Pressurized water reactor

25
M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE
Conventional Reactor....
Boiling water reactor

– Ordinary water used as both coolant and moderator
– Steam is directly ge...
Boiling water reactor

M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE

27
M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE

Reactor systems used..2
• Boiling water reactor

28
Advantages
• More economical compared to thermal plants.
• No problem of fuel transportation, storage
and handling , ash h...
Disadvantages
•
•
•
•

Danger of nuclear radiation.
Disposal of radio active wastes
Part load operation is inefficient.
Ca...
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Basic mechanical engineeering- Power plants

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Basic mechanical engineeering- Power plants

  1. 1. M.S.STEVE Assistant Professor Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Amal Jyothi College of Engineering, Kanjirapally.
  2. 2. Definition of Power Plant The assembly of equipments that produces mechanical energy utilizing the available energy source and converting it to electrical energy is known as a power plant M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 2
  3. 3. Classification • • • • • Hydro-electric Power Plant Thermal (Steam) Power Plant Diesel Engine Power Plant Nuclear Power Plant Gas Turbine Power Plant M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 3
  4. 4. Hydraulic Power Plant  Plants used to produce electric power from water are known as hydro electric power plants  This Power plants utilize the potential energy and Kinetic energy of water as the source of energy for power generation.  KE & PE of water is converted into mechanical power by using prime mover Hydraulic Turbines.  This mechanical energy is used to run an electric generator which is directly coupled to the shaft of the turbine. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 4
  5. 5. Main Elements Storage Reservoir – Natural or artificial. Dam – Masonry dams, wooden dams, steel dams Waterways – canal, penstock, tunnel Control elements – gates, valves, trash rack etc Surge Tank – additional storage space between main reservoir and power house. Also controls pressure variations from rapid changes in rate of flow of water through penstock o Power House o Water Turbines o Generator M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE o o o o o 5
  6. 6. Hydraulic Power Plant - General Layout M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 6
  7. 7. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 7
  8. 8. Advantages • Operating cost is minimum compared to other power plants as no fuel is used • Low maintenance cost • Man power required for the operation is low • No air pollution and safety problems • Rapid fluctuating loads can be served economically • Life of more than 50 years. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 8
  9. 9. Disadvantages • • • • • High initial cost. Power generation not steady and reliable. Long distance transmission required Cost of power transmission high. Long time needed for planning and erection(10 to 15 years). M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 9
  10. 10. Steam – Thermal Power Plant A Steam thermal power plant converts the chemical energy of the fossil fuels (coal,oil,gas) into mechanical/electrical energy In India, coal using as the main fossil fuel. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 10
  11. 11. Main systems of steam thermal plant        Fuel system – coal and ash circuit Air and gas circuit Feed water system Cooling water system Boiler House Prime mover and Generator system Control and Instrumentation System M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 11
  12. 12. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 12
  13. 13. Components of steam thermal plant Boiler 2. Steam turbine 3. Generator 4. Condenser 5. Cooling towers 6. Circulating water pump 7. Boiler feed pump 8. Economiser 1. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Super heater Re heater Air heater Boiler chimney Water treatment plant Coal mill Control room M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 13
  14. 14. Advantages • Less capital cost • Construction time is low • Power generation not dependent on nature’s mercy • Power plant can be located near industrial areas, so transmission cost will be less M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 14
  15. 15. Disadvantages • • • • • • Power generation cost is high Part load efficiency is less Fuel transportation and handling is difficult. Pollution Ash handling is difficult Life time of 20-25 years. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 15
  16. 16. Diesel Engine Power Plant • • • • Utilizing diesel for the power generation. Capacity of plant – 2 to 50 MW Mostly used as a standby power plant Uses – Small power capacity, for small towns, continuous power generation, peak load plant, mobile power plant M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 16
  17. 17. Components • • • • • • • Engine- generally a 2 stroke engine Air supply system Exhaust system Fuel system Cooling system Lubricating system Starting system- compressed air system(20kgf/cm2) • Governing system- varying fuel supply M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 17
  18. 18. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 18
  19. 19. Advantages • More efficient for small capacity power generation than thermal plant. • Layout, design and construction of buildings and foundations easier and less expensive • Quickly started up and brought into service. • Full automation possible at low capital cost. • No problem of fuel handling and waste disposal • Less space required M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 19
  20. 20. Disadvantages • Size is limited and very large capacities are not possible. • Life is very less. • Generates heavy noise • High repair and maintenance cost • High lubrication cost M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 20
  21. 21. Nuclear power plant • Use atomic energy for power generation • Heat energy liberated using nuclear reaction. • Heat produced by 1 kg of uranium = Heat produced by 4500 tones of coal. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 21
  22. 22. Types of conventional reactors • Pressurized water reactor (PWR) • Boiling water reactor (BWR) M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 22
  23. 23. Conventional Reactor.... Pressurized water reactor – The most safe and reliable technology available – Ordinary water used both for coolant and moderator – High pressure of 150atm used to prevent boiling inside the reactor – Using high pressurized hot water, steam is generated in secondary loop (called steam generator) – Thermal efficiency of about 30% M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 23
  24. 24. Pressurized water reactor... M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 24
  25. 25. Reactor systems used..1 • Pressurized water reactor 25 M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE
  26. 26. Conventional Reactor.... Boiling water reactor – Ordinary water used as both coolant and moderator – Steam is directly generated inside the reactor core – Pressure inside the reactor is around 75atm – Thermal efficiency is about 35% – But maintenance cost more than PWR – Eg:- Tarapur Power station M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 26
  27. 27. Boiling water reactor M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 27
  28. 28. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE Reactor systems used..2 • Boiling water reactor 28
  29. 29. Advantages • More economical compared to thermal plants. • No problem of fuel transportation, storage and handling , ash handling • Low man power required • Cost of operation reduced. • Less space occupied than thermal plant. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 29
  30. 30. Disadvantages • • • • Danger of nuclear radiation. Disposal of radio active wastes Part load operation is inefficient. Capital cost of small sized plants is high. M.S.Steve/ Assist. Professor/ Dept. of ME/ AJCE 30
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