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Slavery Slideshow  Chapter 11
 

Slavery Slideshow Chapter 11

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Slideshow created by Pearson detailing the conditions of slavery in the South prior to the outbreak of the American Civil War. Content owned by Pearson, from the textbook and American Journey.

Slideshow created by Pearson detailing the conditions of slavery in the South prior to the outbreak of the American Civil War. Content owned by Pearson, from the textbook and American Journey.

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  • {"38":"This contemporary woodcut of Nat Turner’s Rebellion depicts the fervency of both the actions of the slaves and the response of the whites.\n","44":"Colonel James A. Whiteside and his family were among the small elite of white southerners who enjoyed the wealth and ease of life on a large plantation. Reflecting the ideal of patriarchy, this portrait, c. 1858, projects the colonel as a figure of power and authority.\nJames Cameron (1817–1882), “Colonel and Mrs. James A. Whiteside, Son Charles and servants,” oil on canvas; c. 1858–1859.Hunter Museum of Art, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Whiteside. 1975.7.\n","33":"Satirically entitled Virginian Luxuries, this antislavery painting sought to expose how the unchecked power of slaveowners resulted in the physical beating and sexual abuse of their slaves.\n","11":"FIGURE 11–1 U.S. Cotton Production, 1800–1860\nCotton production spiraled upward after 1800, and the South became the world’s leading supplier.\nData Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States (1960).\n","50":"FIGURE 11–3 Slave, Free Black, and White Population in Southern States, 1850\nExcept for Texas, slaves by 1850 comprised over 40 percent of the population in every state of the Lower South. The small population of free black people was concentrated in the Upper South.\n","39":"After fleeing from slavery in Maryland in 1849,Harriet “Moses” Tubman, standing on the left, risked reenslavement by returning to the South on several occasions to assist in the escapes of other slaves. She is photographed here with some of those she helped free.\n","56":"As this printed label from the 1850s for a box of cigars reveals, antebellum manufacturers of consumer goods produced by slave labor had every incentive to present an idealized picture of slave life in the South.\n","23":"FIGURE 11–2 The Changing Regional Pattern of Slavery in the South, 1800–1860\nAs the nineteenth century progressed, slavery increasingly became identified with the cotton-growing Lower South.\n","51":"Barbering was one of the skilled trades open to black men during the antebellum years. Several wealthy African Americans began their careers as barbers.\n","29":"This scene of slaves standing in a dirt lane flanked by the slave cabins on a South Carolina plantation in Hilton Head was captured by a Union photographer in 1862.\n","18":"MAP 11–2 Cotton and Other Crops in the South, 1860\nMost of the Upper South was outside the cotton belt, where the demand for slave labor was greatest.\n","24":"The internal slave trade was the primary means by which the slaves of the Upper South were brought into the plantation markets of the Old Southwest. This illustration shows professional slave traders driving a chained group of slaves, known as a coffle, to prospective buyers in the Lower South.\nCollection of The New-York Historical Society\n","30":"Especially on large plantations, slave nursemaids cared for the young children in the white planter’s family.\n","19":"BMW employees on an assembly line in Greer, South Carolina.\n","14":"Like most slave traders, Thomas Griggs of Charleston offered cash for ill slaves he purchased.\n","3":"The spectacle of the slave market was commonplace in the cities of the antebellum South. The above scene is of a slave auction in Richmond, Virginia.\n","20":"A common scene at harvest time in the Lower South: slaves working in a cotton field under the supervision of a white overseer, shown here mounted on his horse.\n","10":"MAP 11–1 The Spread of Slavery: New Slave States Entering the Union, 1800–1850.\nSeven slave states entered the Union after 1800 as cotton production shifted westward.\n"}

Slavery Slideshow  Chapter 11 Slavery Slideshow Chapter 11 Presentation Transcript

  • THE AMERICAN JOURNEY A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES Brief Sixth Edition Chapter 11 Slavery and the Old South 1800-1860 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Slavery and the Old South 1800-1860 • • • • • The Lower South The Upper South Slave Life and Culture Free Society Conclusion The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The above scene is of a slave auction in Richmond, Virginia. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Learning Objectives • How did the increasing demand for cotton shape the development of slavery in the Lower South? • What caused the decline of slavery after 1800 in the Upper South? • What was life like for African American slaves in the first half of the nineteenth century? The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Learning Objectives (cont'd) • How was free society in the South structured? • How did the southern defense of slavery change between the early nineteenth century and the 1850s? The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Lower South The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Lower South • The American South held incomparable natural advantages for growing cotton. Ambitious white southerners exploited these advantages, as cotton production and slavery went hand in hand. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Cotton and Slaves • After the 1790s, cotton production boomed. While cotton required significant labor, slaves also cultivated corn and performed other tasks. • Large plantations specializing in a cash crop and employing 20 slaves or more were the leading economic institutions of the Lower South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Cotton and Slaves (cont'd) • By 1850, the Lower South plantations were larger and more specialized than those in other areas of the South.  Gang system - The organization and supervision of slave field hands into working teams on southern plantations. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • MAP 11–1 The Spread of Slavery: New Slave States Entering the Union, 1800–1850. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • FIGURE 11–1 U.S. Cotton Production, 1800– 1860 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Profits of Slavery • The profitability of slavery rested on the demand for cotton outside the South which grew at an annual rate of 5 percent between 1800 and 1850. • British textile mills were the largest market for southern cotton but continental Europe and the United States increased in importance after 1840. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Profits of Slavery (cont'd) • Southern law defined slaves as chattel and the internal slave trade was large and profitable. • The planters of the Lower South resisted urbanization and industrialization as threats to slavery. • Urban slaves were artisans, semi-skilled workers, and domestics. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Like most slave traders, Thomas Griggs of Charleston offered cash for ill slaves he purchased. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Upper South The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • A Period of Economic Adjustment • In the 1820s and 1830s, the Upper South was characterized by exhausted fields and depopulation. • Agricultural reform, led by Edmund Ruffin, promoted more effective methods of soil fertilization, and cultivation. Crop diversification also helped revive the economy. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • A Period of Economic Adjustment (cont'd) • Urbanization in the Upper South was much less than in the North but much greater than in the Lower South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • MAP 11–2 Cotton and Other Crops in the South, 1860 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • BMW employees on an assembly line in Greer, South Carolina. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Slaves working in a cotton field under the supervision of a white overseer, shown here mounted on his horse. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Decline of Slavery • In the Border South, the decline of slavery was most evident. In other areas of the Upper South, slavery was stable with growth evident only in Arkansas. • The Upper South acted as a slave exporter to the Lower South, accelerating the decline of slavery in the upper region. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Decline of Slavery (cont'd) • Crop diversification also contributed to the decline of slavery as did the cheapness and availability of free labor. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • FIGURE 11–2 The Changing Regional Pattern of Slavery in the South, 1800–1860 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • This illustration shows professional slave traders driving a chained group of slaves, known as a coffle, to prospective buyers in the Lower South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Slave Life and Culture The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Work Routines and Living Conditions • Slave codes passed by each southern state defined the status of slaves and the rights of masters. • Planters provided slaves with the bare necessities of life. The slave diet of cornmeal and salt pork was nutritionally deficient. Slaves received two sets of coarse clothing and lived in small cabins. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Work Routines and Living Conditions (cont'd) • Slaves worked from sunup to sundown. Approximately 15 to 20 percent of slaves were servants or skilled artisans. • Almost 75 percent of slaves worked on plantations or medium-sized farms. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Work Routines and Living Conditions (cont'd)  Slave codes - Sometimes known as “black codes.” A series of laws passed mainly in the southern colonies in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries to define the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them. Also, after American independence and before the Civil War, state laws in the South defining slaves as property and specifying the legal powers of masters over slaves. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • This scene of slaves standing in a dirt lane flanked by the slave cabins on a South Carolina plantation in Hilton Head was captured by a Union photographer in 1862. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Especially on large plantations, slave nursemaids cared for the young children in the white planter’s family. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Families and Religion  The family was the core institution of slave life and despite the various obstacles, slaves created lasting relationships and a supportive moral code for families.  Both parents were present in about two-thirds of slave families but sale of a spouse or child was always a threat. Extensive kinship ties helped support the slave family. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Families and Religion (cont'd)  Slave religion was based on African traditions and no more than 30 percent of slaves converted to Christianity. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • This antislavery painting sought to expose how the unchecked power of slaveowners resulted in the physical beating and sexual abuse of their slaves. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Resistance • Open resistance to slavery was futile. Ultimately, slave rebellions failed. • Escape to freedom was also rare. The Underground Railroad helped many slaves escape but these represented a small proportion of the total slave population. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Resistance (cont’d) • Most slave resistance involved malingering at work, abusing farm animals, losing tools, stealing, and arson.  Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion - Slave revolt that failed when Gabriel Prosser, a slave preacher and blacksmith, organized a thousand slaves for an attack on Richmond, Virginia, in 1800. A thunderstorm upset the timing of the attack, and a slave informer alerted the whites. Prosser and twenty-five of his followers were executed. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Resistance (cont’d)  Denmark Vesey’s Conspiracy - The most carefully devised slave revolt, named after its leader, a free black in Charleston. The rebels planned to seize control of Charleston in 1822 and escape to freedom in Haiti, a free black republic, but they were betrayed by other slaves, and seventy-five conspirators were executed.  Nat Turner’s Rebellion - Uprising of slaves in Southampton County, Virginia, in the summer of 1831 led by Nat Turner that resulted in the death of fifty-five whites. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Resistance (cont’d)  Underground Railroad - Support system set up by antislavery groups in the Upper South and the North to assist fugitive slaves in escaping the South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • This contemporary woodcut of Nat Turner’s Rebellion depicts the fervency of both the actions of the slaves and the response of the whites. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Harriet “Moses” Tubman The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Free Society The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Slaveholding Minority • In 1860, the wealthiest planters constituted less than one percent of southern white families. • Most planters lived in drab log cabins. • The wives of planters were expected to help supervise the slaves and run the plantations. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Slaveholding Minority (cont'd) • Small slaveholders were generally younger than planters and a diverse in background and gender. They had little economic security but owning slaves was a precondition to upward mobility. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Structure of Free Society in the South, c. 1860 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Reflecting the ideal of patriarchy, this portrait, c. 1858, projects the colonel as a figure of power and authority. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The White Majority • Seventy-five percent of southern white families did not own slaves in 1860. • Most southerners were yeoman farmers who worked their land with family labor. They were very mobile but quickly formed localized societies. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The White Majority (cont'd) • Clashes between yeoman farmers and planters generally were over economic issues, including banks and credit. • Around 15 percent of southern rural white families did not own land. • Nonslaveholders were a growing majority in southern cities. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Free Black People • Free African Americans constituted a small minority of the southern population and were denied many rights by black codes. • Eighty percent of free African Americans lived in the Upper South and one third lived in cities. Most were confined to the lowest level jobs. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Free Black People (cont'd) • Free, urban African Americans developed communities based on the church and mutual aid associations. Education was highly regarded. • Most of the very small free black population in the Lower South were descendants of black emigrants who fled Haiti. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Free Black People (cont'd)  Black codes - Laws passed by states and municipalities denying many rights of citizenship to free blacks before the Civil War. Also, during the Reconstruction era, laws passed by newly elected southern state legislatures to control black labor, mobility, and employment. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • FIGURE 11–3 Slave, Free Black, and White Population in Southern States, 1850 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Barbering was one of the skilled trades open to black men during the antebellum years. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Pro-Slavery Argument The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • The Pro-Slavery Argument • Beginning in the 1830s, southerners responded to Nat Turner’s rebellion and northern abolitionist attacks by launching strong efforts to defend slavery. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Religious Arguments • Evangelical religious leaders led the defense of slavery and saw slavery as a positive good. • The biblical defense of slavery was less popular than arguments on the inferiority of black people. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Racial Arguments • More common than the biblical defense of slavery was the racial argument that blacks were unfit for freedom. • Another egalitarian argument was that slavery spared the nonslaveholding majority from employment at the most menial tasks. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Printed label from the 1850s for a box of cigars The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Conclusion The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Conclusion • Slavery and a biracial social order defined the South as a distinctive region. • After 1830, the spread of slavery throughout the Lower South depended the commitment to the institution while northern abolitionist attacks stimulated a strong defense of slavery. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Conclusion (cont'd) • In the 1850s, the number of slaveholders declined and slavery was shrinking in the Upper South leading to some southern attacks on the institutions and a belief among some planters that the South should become a separate nation. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.