THE AMERICAN JOURNEY
A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES
Brief Sixth Edition

Chapter

15

Battle Cries and
Freedom Songs: The
...
Battle Cries and Freedom Songs:
The Civil War 1861-1865
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Mobilization, North and South
The Early War, 1861–1...
Awaiting combat, 1861: Union soldiers from New
York relax at camp

The American Journey: A History of the United States, B...
Learning Objectives
• What were the North’s key advantages at
the outset of the war?
• How did the two sides’ objectives d...
Learning Objectives (cont'd)
• How did the war affect civilian life in the
South?
• What was Grant’s strategy for ending t...
Mobilization
North and South

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott...
War Fever
• After the fall of Fort Sumter, President
Lincoln mobilized state militias for 90
days, but Virginia, Arkansas,...
War Fever (cont'd)
• War fever led many to volunteer for
military service.
• The initial enthusiasm for serving faded,
lea...
The North’s Advantage in Resources
• The North had human and economic
advantages over the South.
• Approximately half the ...
The North’s Advantage in Resources
(cont'd)
• At the beginning of the war, the North
controlled 90 percent of the nation’s...
FIGURE 15–1 A Comparison of the Union and
Confederate Control of Key Resources at the
Outset of the Civil War

The America...
Leaders, Governments, and Strategies
• Jefferson Davis had to build a government
from scratch while Lincoln had an
establi...
Abraham Lincoln and the North
• Lincoln and other northern leaders
secured support for the prolonged
sacrifice of the Civi...
Lincoln’s Fight for the Border States
• Lincoln adopted a soft strategy to keep the
border states in the Union. Maryland a...
The Southern Landscape
• The southern landscape played a
significant strategic role in the Civil War,
and its idiosyncraci...
The Southern Landscape (cont'd)
• However, eventually the Union’s
technological superiority would enable it to
transcend e...
The southern landscape played a major role in the
Civil War.

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief ...
The Early War
1861–1862

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott • Ar...
First Bull Run
• Union forces under McDowell confronted
Confederate soldiers under Beauregard at
Manassas, Virginia.
• At ...
MAP 15–1 From First Bull Run to
Antietam: The War in the East,
1861–1862

The American Journey: A History of the United St...
The War in the West
• Forces under General Ulysses S. Grant
captured the strategic forts Henry and
Donelson.
• Grant moved...
The War in the West (cont'd)
• The fall of Memphis meant the only major
river town remaining in Confederate hands
was Vick...
MAP 15–2 The War in the West,
1861–1862

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfie...
A surgeon prepares to amputate the leg of a
wounded Union soldier after the Battle of
Gettysburg.

The American Journey: A...
A Federal field hospital, Savage Station, VA, June
1862

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth...
The War in the East
• General George McClellan assumed
command of the Union army in the east
while General Robert E. Lee w...
The War in the East (cont’d)
• When McClellan withdrew, Lincoln
replaced him with John Pope who lost the
Second Battle of ...
The care by trained nurses (usually women)
remains indispensable for both the physical
and mental recovery of the wounded....
Nurse Ann Bell tends a fallen Union Soldier.

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Go...
Turning Points
1862–1863

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott • A...
The Naval War
• The Union naval strategy was to blockade
the southern coast and capture its key
seaports and river towns, ...
The Naval War (cont'd)
• Southerners believed recognition by
foreign governments would legitimize their
cause and that cot...
Antietam
• Recognizing that the South could not
sustain a prolonged conflict, Lee moved
into Maryland in September 1862, h...
Antietam (cont'd)
• The Battle of Antietam caused thousands
of casualties, was a tactical draw, and
forced Lee back into V...
Antietam (cont'd)
• Antietam was a turning point because it
kept Lee from threatening Northern
industry and financial inst...
Emancipation
• Pressure had mounted in the North during
1862 for some form of emancipation but it
was not favored by a maj...
Emancipation (cont'd)
• The proclamation raced through the slave
grapevine and continued the process of
running away to Un...
Emancipation (cont'd)
 Emancipation Proclamation
- Decree announced by President Abraham Lincoln
in September 1862 and fo...
Theodore Kaufman (1814–1896), “On to Liberty,”
1867, Oil on canvas

The American Journey: A History of the United States, ...
Black Union troops—former slaves—repelling
Confederates at New Bern, NC, February 1864

The American Journey: A History of...
From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg
• General Ambrose Burnside replaced
McClellan and moved against Lee’s army,
but was repe...
From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg
(cont'd)
• General George Meade replaced Hooker.
At the three-day Battle of Gettysburg, ...
MAP 15–3 From
Fredericksburg to
Gettysburg: The War in
the East, December 1862–
July 1863

The American Journey: A History...
MAP 15–4 The Battle of
Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Editi...
The goddess “Columbia” (a popular depiction of
America in contemporary cartoons)

The American Journey: A History of the U...
Timothy H. O’Sullivan’s photograph of dead Union
soldiers at the southern end of the Gettysburg
battlefield, July 2, 1863....
Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and the West
• Grant captured Vicksburg after a siege.
• Confederate forces confined a Union army
...
Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and the West
(cont'd)
• Confederate hopes for securing Texas fell
short as the naval blockade tigh...
MAP 15–5 Vicksburg and Chattanooga: The War
in the West, 1863

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief...
The War Transforms the North

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott...
Wartime Legislation and Politics
• Lincoln used executive authority to silence
opposition through several controversial
ac...
Wartime Legislation and Politics
(cont'd)
• To boost the economy, Congress passed
the Homestead Act of 1862 and the Land
G...
Wartime Legislation and Politics
(cont'd)
 Copperheads
- A term Republicans applied to northern war
dissenters and those ...
War Transforms the North (cont'd)
 Homestead Act
- Law passed by Congress in 1862 providing 160
acres of land free to any...
War Transforms the North (cont'd)
 New York Draft Riot
- A mostly Irish-immigrant protest against
conscription in New Yor...
The lynching of a black New Yorker during the
Draft Riot in July 1863.

The American Journey: A History of the United Stat...
The Northern Economy
• After an initial downturn before the war,
the northern economy picked up quickly.
New industries bo...
Trade Unions and Strikebreakers
• Though wages increased during the war,
prices rose higher, reviving the trade
union move...
Trade Unions and Strikebreakers
(cont'd)
• The northern economy, however, fed,
clothed, and armed the Union soldiers as
we...
Northern Women and the War
• More than 100,000 northern women
worked in various industries during the
war.
• Women also wo...
Northern Women and the War (cont’d)
• The new economic opportunities created
by the war opened up women’s options,
includi...
The Confederacy Disintegrates

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbot...
Southern Politics
• Southern politics was hindered by dissent
that grew stronger as the Confederacy’s
fortunes declined.
•...
Southern Politics (cont'd)
• Attempts by Davis and other Confederate
leaders to build a strong sense of
Confederate nation...
Southern Faith
• In a devout society convinced it was
waging a holy war, white southerners
interpreted their mounting loss...
The Southern Economy
• By 1863, the South experienced difficulty
feeding its population. Bread riots broke
out in Mobile, ...
The Southern Economy (cont’d)
• The Union and Confederate armies
threatened civilians with robbery, rape,
and murder.
• Ma...
the 1863 food riot

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott • Argersi...
Southern Women and the War
• Southern women managed plantations,
working in fields alongside slaves.
• Southern women also...
Southern Women and the War (cont’d)
• As the war continued, many women
helped their deserting husbands and
relatives elude...
The Union Prevails
1864–1865

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott...
Grant’s Plan to End the War
• Grant was appointed commander of the
Union forces. He coordinated the Union
war effort and c...
Grant’s Plan to End the War (cont'd)
• At the Battle of the Wilderness, Grant
surprised Lee by not withdrawing after
both ...
MAP 15–6 Grant and Lee in Virginia, 1864–1865

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
G...
White family “refugeeing.”

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott •...
General Ulysses S. Grant had the pews from a local
church moved to a grove of trees where he and his
officers planned the ...
The Election of 1864 and
Sherman’s March
• George McClellan opposed Lincoln in the
1864 election.
• The fall of Atlanta an...
The Election of 1864 and
Sherman’s March (cont'd)
• Some Confederate leaders proposed
arming slaves but the slaves respond...
MAP 15–7 The Atlanta Campaign and
Sherman’s March, 1864–1865

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief ...
“Miscegenation Ball” 1864.

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott •...
The Road to Appomattox and
the Death of Lincoln
• Lee’s army remained the obstacle to
Union victory. He abandoned the defe...
Major Battles of the Civil War, 1861–1865

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldf...
Major Battles of the Civil War, 1861–1865

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldf...
General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox
after his surrender to Union General
U. S .Grant on April 9, 1865.

The American Journ...
Conclusion

The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition
Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • D...
Conclusion
• The Civil War caused over one million
casualties, dead and wounded.
• It left the South devastated. One in fo...
Conclusion (cont'd)
• For black Southerners, emancipation was
the conflict’s most important result.
• The Civil War also s...
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Events of the Civil War Slideshow Chapter 15

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  • Awaiting combat, 1861: Union soldiers from New York relax at camp awaiting orders to move to the front. The young men show great confidence and determination for their coming engagements, though one fellow to the left of the tent, perhaps a teenager far from home, seems to long for something as he stares beyond the camera. At this early stage of the war, a combination of romance and apprehension enveloped these hopeful recruits. Note the young African American with a broom sitting apart from the soldiers.
  • FIGURE 15–1 A Comparison of the Union and Confederate Control of Key Resources at the Outset of the Civil War
  • The southern landscape played a major role in the Civil War. The undulating terrain and the obstacles presented by rivers, streams, woods, and cultivated fields are all on display here as Union troops under General Ambrose Burnside take the bridge (today named after the General) over Antietam Creek in September 1862. Rebel forces held the higher ground, however, and pushed the Federals back later in the day.
  • MAP 15–1 From First Bull Run to Antietam: The War in the East, 1861–1862
    The early stages of the war demonstrated the strategies of the Confederacy and the Union. Federal troops stormed into Virginia hoping to capture Richmond and bring a quick end to the war. Through a combination of poor generalship and Confederate tenacity, they failed. Confederate troops hoped to defend their territory, prolong the war, and eventually win their independence as northern patience evaporated. They proved successful initially, but, with the abandonment of the defensive strategy and the invasion of Maryland in the fall of 1862, the Confederates suffered a political and morale setback at Antietam.
  • MAP 15–2 The War in the West, 1861–1862
    Because of the early Union emphasis on capturing Richmond, the war in the West seemed less important to northerners. But from a strategic standpoint, the victories at Forts Henry and Donelson, which drove a wedge into southern territory and closed the Confederacy’s quickest path to the West from Virginia and the Carolinas, and the capture of New Orleans and its Mississippi River port were crucial and set the stage for greater Federal success in the West in 1863.
  • A surgeon prepares to amputate the leg of a wounded Union soldier after the Battle of Gettysburg. Such primitive field hospitals functioned without the rudiments of sanitation and contributed to the staggering casualties on each side. Amputations were the most common surgical procedures performed during the war. Cutting off a limb was usually the first option to prevent a fatal infection.
  • A Federal field hospital, Savage Station, VA, June 1862, during the Seven Days Battles. Mortality rates were high in hospitals on both sides, and here is one reason why. Makeshift field hospitals, overcrowded and providing only straw on the bare ground for comfort, offered little sanitation or care for wounded soldiers.
  • Although technology has improved the survival rate, the care by trained nurses (usually women) remains indispensable for both the physical and mental recovery of the wounded.
    Nurse Ann Bell tends a fallen Union Soldier. The war helped open nursing as a respectable occupation for women.
  • Although technology has improved the survival rate, the care by trained nurses (usually women) remains indispensable for both the physical and mental recovery of the wounded.
  • Nurse Ann Bell tends a fallen Union Soldier. The war helped open nursing as a respectable occupation for women.
  • Even before the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves throughout the South “stole” their freedom. After the Proclamation, the trickle of black slaves abandoning their masters became a flood as they sought freedom behind Union lines.
    Theodore Kaufman (1814–1896), “On to Liberty,” 1867, Oil on canvas, 36 x 56 in. (91.4 x 142.2 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gift of Irving and Joyce Wolf, 1982 (1982.443.3) Photograph © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Art Resource, NY
  • Black Union troops—former slaves—repelling Confederates at New Bern, NC, February 1864; African Americans, both free and slave, fought valiantly and often fiercely for their freedom; the alternative was sometimes execution on the spot or reenslavement.
  • MAP 15–3 From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg: The War in the East, December 1862–July 1863
    By all logic, the increasingly outgunned and outfinanced Confederacy should have been showing signs of faltering by 1863. But bungling by Union generals at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville sustained southern fortunes and encouraged Robert E. Lee to attempt another invasion of the North.
  • MAP 15–4 The Battle of Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863
    In a war that lasted four years, it is difficult to point to the decisive battle. But clearly, the outcome during those hot July days at Gettysburg set the tone for the rest of the war. The result was unclear until the final day of battle, and even then it might have gone either way. Winning by a whisker was enough to propel Union armies to a string of victories over the next year and to throw Confederate forces back on their defenses among an increasingly despairing population. Gettysburg marked the last major southern invasion of the North.
  • The goddess “Columbia” (a popular depiction of America in contemporary cartoons) rebukes President Lincoln for the slaughter of Federal troops at Fredericksburg in December 1862: “Where are my 15,000 sons—murdered at Fredericksburg?” The president, as he often did to defuse tense situations, makes a weak attempt at humor:“ This reminds me of a little joke.” An incensed Columbia cuts him off:“ Go tell your joke at Springfield [Illinois]. ”This was typical of the searing criticism Lincoln received in the press and the erosion of public support in the North after this military debacle.
  • Timothy H. O’ Sullivan’s photograph of dead Union soldiers at the southern end of the Gettysburg battlefield, July 2, 1863. O’Sullivan titled the work “The Harvest of Death. ”Note the bodies bloodied and blackened by the July heat. Such photographs brought home the carnage of the war in vivid detail to northern civilians.
  • MAP 15–5 Vicksburg and Chattanooga: The War in the West, 1863
    Devising a brilliant strategy, Union General Ulysses S. Grant took the last major Mississippi River stronghold from Confederate hands on July 4, 1863, dealing a significant economic and morale blow to the South. Coupled with the defeat at Gettysburg a day earlier, the fall of Vicksburg portended a bitter finale to hopes for southern independence. Grant completed his domination of the West by joining forces with several Union generals to capture Chattanooga and push Confederate forces into Georgia, setting the stage for the capture of that key southern state in 1864.
  • The lynching of a black New Yorker during the Draft Riot in July 1863.The violence against black people during the riot reflected decades of racial tension, especially between Irish immigrants and black residents, over jobs and housing.
  • Wartime food shortages, skyrocketing inflation, and rumors of hoarding and price-gouging drove women in several southern cities to protest violently. Demonstrations like the 1863 food riot shown here reflected a larger rending of southern society as Confederate losses and casualties mounted on the battlefield. Some southern women placed survival and providing for their families ahead of boosting morale and silently supporting a war effort that had taken their men away. Their defection hurt the Confederate cause.
  • MAP 15–6 Grant and Lee in Virginia, 1864–1865
    The engagements in Virginia from May 1864 to April 1865 between the two great generals proved decisive in ending the Civil War. Although Lee fared well enough in the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor campaigns, the sheer might and relentlessness of Grant and his army wore down the Confederate forces. When Petersburg fell after a prolonged siege on April 2, 1865, Richmond, Appomattox, and dreams of southern independence soon fell as well.
  • White family “refugeeing.” In advance of Union armies, tens of thousands of southern families fled to safer locales, a bitter exodus that fulfilled the Federals’ vow to bring the war to the South’s civilian population.
  • General Ulysses S. Grant had the pews from a local church moved to a grove of trees where he and his officers planned the following day’s assault on Confederate troops at Cold Harbor, Virginia. Grant appears at the left of the photograph, leaning over a bench and studying a map.
  • MAP 15–7 The Atlanta Campaign and Sherman’s March, 1864–1865
    General William T. Sherman, a brilliant tactician who generally refused to be goaded into a frontal assault, “danced” with Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston until an impatient Jefferson Davis replaced Johnston with John Bell Hood, and soon Atlanta was in Federal hands. The fall of Atlanta opened the way to the rest of Georgia, a key supply state for the Confederacy. With orders not to harm the civilian population, Sherman’s men took their wrath out on property as they made their way through Georgia and South Carolina.
  • “Miscegenation Ball” 1864. During the presidential campaign of 1864, the Democrats portrayed the Republicans, and Lincoln in particular, as favoring the intermingling of the races and as so obsessed with racial equality that they would continue a bloody war to achieve that end. In this caricature white men and black women consort, dance, and flirt with each other in a suggestive manner.
  • General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox after his surrender to Union General U. S .Grant on April 9, 1865. His men followed the defeated leader, poignantly brushing their hats against the withers of his horse, Traveler. Many wept openly. The war was over as the sun set on the dream of southern independence.
  • Events of the Civil War Slideshow Chapter 15

    1. 1. THE AMERICAN JOURNEY A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES Brief Sixth Edition Chapter 15 Battle Cries and Freedom Songs: The Civil War 1861-1865 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Battle Cries and Freedom Songs: The Civil War 1861-1865 • • • • • • • Mobilization, North and South The Early War, 1861–1862 Turning Points, 1862–1863 The War Transforms the North The Confederacy Disintegrates The Union Prevails, 1864–1865 Conclusion The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. Awaiting combat, 1861: Union soldiers from New York relax at camp The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. Learning Objectives • What were the North’s key advantages at the outset of the war? • How did the two sides’ objectives dictate their strategies in the early years of the war? • What convinced Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation? • What impact did the war have on the North’s economy? The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. Learning Objectives (cont'd) • How did the war affect civilian life in the South? • What was Grant’s strategy for ending the war? The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. 6. Mobilization North and South The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. War Fever • After the fall of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln mobilized state militias for 90 days, but Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee seceded from the Union. • The general belief was that the war would be brief and both northerners and southerners strongly supported their governments. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. War Fever (cont'd) • War fever led many to volunteer for military service. • The initial enthusiasm for serving faded, leading to drafts by both the Union and Confederacy. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. The North’s Advantage in Resources • The North had human and economic advantages over the South. • Approximately half the men of military age fought in the North and their numbers were supplemented by African Americans and Irish immigrants. In the South, 90 percent of the eligible population served. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. The North’s Advantage in Resources (cont'd) • At the beginning of the war, the North controlled 90 percent of the nation’s industrial capacity.The northern railroad system was twice that of the South. • The North has more abundant financial resources than the South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. FIGURE 15–1 A Comparison of the Union and Confederate Control of Key Resources at the Outset of the Civil War The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. Leaders, Governments, and Strategies • Jefferson Davis had to build a government from scratch while Lincoln had an established structure and organization. Lincoln’s personality was better fit for leadership than the aloof, uncompromising Davis. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. Abraham Lincoln and the North • Lincoln and other northern leaders secured support for the prolonged sacrifice of the Civil War by articulating the importance of preserving the Union. • On a human level, Lincoln’s folksy personal skills, simple eloquence, and humor enabled him to connect with people and handle disagreement better than Davis did. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. Lincoln’s Fight for the Border States • Lincoln adopted a soft strategy to keep the border states in the Union. Maryland and Kentucky never seceded while a guerilla war broke out in Missouri. • Although Virginia went with the Confederacy, some counties in the western part of the state established themselves as the pro-Union state of West Virginia. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    15. 15. The Southern Landscape • The southern landscape played a significant strategic role in the Civil War, and its idiosyncracies led to several tragic errors of judgment involving the realities of the southern natural environment. • The South’s dense forests, uneven terrain, heat, and humidity hampered traditional battle tactics and exhausted the troops. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. The Southern Landscape (cont'd) • However, eventually the Union’s technological superiority would enable it to transcend environmental barriers. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. The southern landscape played a major role in the Civil War. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. The Early War 1861–1862 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. First Bull Run • Union forces under McDowell confronted Confederate soldiers under Beauregard at Manassas, Virginia. • At the First Battle of Bull Run, the Union seemed headed toward victory but wound up losing. • Bull Run dispelled some illusions about the war but also boosted southern confidence in their superior military ability. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    20. 20. MAP 15–1 From First Bull Run to Antietam: The War in the East, 1861–1862 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    21. 21. The War in the West • Forces under General Ulysses S. Grant captured the strategic forts Henry and Donelson. • Grant moved south and won victories at Shiloh Church, Tennessee and Corinth, Mississippi. • Admiral David Farragut led a naval force that captured New Orleans. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    22. 22. The War in the West (cont'd) • The fall of Memphis meant the only major river town remaining in Confederate hands was Vicksburg. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    23. 23. MAP 15–2 The War in the West, 1861–1862 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    24. 24. A surgeon prepares to amputate the leg of a wounded Union soldier after the Battle of Gettysburg. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    25. 25. A Federal field hospital, Savage Station, VA, June 1862 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    26. 26. The War in the East • General George McClellan assumed command of the Union army in the east while General Robert E. Lee was named head of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. • Lee attacked McClellan’s forces twice and was repulsed both times but casualties numbered in the tens of thousands. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    27. 27. The War in the East (cont’d) • When McClellan withdrew, Lincoln replaced him with John Pope who lost the Second Battle of Bull Run to Lee. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    28. 28. The care by trained nurses (usually women) remains indispensable for both the physical and mental recovery of the wounded. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    29. 29. Nurse Ann Bell tends a fallen Union Soldier. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    30. 30. Turning Points 1862–1863 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    31. 31. The Naval War • The Union naval strategy was to blockade the southern coast and capture its key seaports and river towns, destroying the South’s ability to carry on the war. • Neither the Union nor the Confederacy had much of a navy when war erupted. As the Union navy grew, the blockade became more effective. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    32. 32. The Naval War (cont'd) • Southerners believed recognition by foreign governments would legitimize their cause and that cotton would be an important diplomatic bargaining point. • Neither Great Britain nor France recognized the Confederacy and France invaded Mexico. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    33. 33. Antietam • Recognizing that the South could not sustain a prolonged conflict, Lee moved into Maryland in September 1862, hoping to cut railroad links in Pennsylvania. He was convinced McClellan would not attack. Copies of Lee’s orders fell into Union hands and McClellan pursued Lee. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    34. 34. Antietam (cont'd) • The Battle of Antietam caused thousands of casualties, was a tactical draw, and forced Lee back into Virginia. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    35. 35. Antietam (cont'd) • Antietam was a turning point because it kept Lee from threatening Northern industry and financial institutions. It also prompted Britain and France to abandon plans to recognize the Confederacy and allowed Lincoln to announce the abolition of slavery. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    36. 36. Emancipation • Pressure had mounted in the North during 1862 for some form of emancipation but it was not favored by a majority of northerners, including Irish immigrants. But freeing the slaves would appeal to the British. • The Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves in the states still in rebellion against the Union. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    37. 37. Emancipation (cont'd) • The proclamation raced through the slave grapevine and continued the process of running away to Union camps that had begun earlier. • Of the approximately 180,000 black soldiers and 20,000 black sailors who fought for the Union, over 80 percent were from the South. Many faced discrimination but fought valiantly. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    38. 38. Emancipation (cont'd)  Emancipation Proclamation - Decree announced by President Abraham Lincoln in September 1862 and formally issued on January 1, 1863, freeing slaves in all Confederate states still in rebellion.  Confiscation Act of 1862 - Second confiscation law passed by Congress, ordering the seizure of land from disloyal Southerners and the emancipation of their slaves. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    39. 39. Theodore Kaufman (1814–1896), “On to Liberty,” 1867, Oil on canvas The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    40. 40. Black Union troops—former slaves—repelling Confederates at New Bern, NC, February 1864 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    41. 41. From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg • General Ambrose Burnside replaced McClellan and moved against Lee’s army, but was repelled at the Battle of Fredericksburg. • General Joseph Hooker replaced Burnside but was defeated by Lee at Chancellorsville, leading Lee to plan a bold move north. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    42. 42. From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg (cont'd) • General George Meade replaced Hooker. At the three-day Battle of Gettysburg, the Union army defeated Lee’s forces. It was the bloodiest battle of the war, boosting Union morale but draining Lee of men and material. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    43. 43. MAP 15–3 From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg: The War in the East, December 1862– July 1863 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    44. 44. MAP 15–4 The Battle of Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    45. 45. The goddess “Columbia” (a popular depiction of America in contemporary cartoons) The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    46. 46. Timothy H. O’Sullivan’s photograph of dead Union soldiers at the southern end of the Gettysburg battlefield, July 2, 1863. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    47. 47. Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and the West • Grant captured Vicksburg after a siege. • Confederate forces confined a Union army at Chattanooga, but Union reinforcements divided the Confederate army and broke the siege forcing the Confederate army to retreat into Georgia. • In the Trans-Mississippi West, several Native American tribes battled Union forces for land and resources. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    48. 48. Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and the West (cont'd) • Confederate hopes for securing Texas fell short as the naval blockade tightened and Comanches raided western settlements. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    49. 49. MAP 15–5 Vicksburg and Chattanooga: The War in the West, 1863 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    50. 50. The War Transforms the North The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    51. 51. Wartime Legislation and Politics • Lincoln used executive authority to silence opposition through several controversial actions, including suspending the writ of habeas corpus. Executive sanctions fell hard on dissenting Democrats called “Copperheads.” The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    52. 52. Wartime Legislation and Politics (cont'd) • To boost the economy, Congress passed the Homestead Act of 1862 and the Land Grant College Act. A protective tariff helped manufacturers and the National Banking Act of 1863 established a uniform national currency. • The draft aroused conflicts including the New York Draft Riot that began with an Irish mob protesting conscription. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    53. 53. Wartime Legislation and Politics (cont'd)  Copperheads - A term Republicans applied to northern war dissenters and those suspected of aiding the Confederate cause during the Civil War.  Radical Republicans - A shifting group of Republican congressmen, usually a substantial minority, who favored the abolition of slavery from the beginning of the Civil War and later advocated harsh treatment of the defeated South. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    54. 54. War Transforms the North (cont'd)  Homestead Act - Law passed by Congress in 1862 providing 160 acres of land free to anyone who would live on the plot and farm it for five years.  Land Grant College Act - Law passed by Congress in July 1862 awarding proceeds from the sale of public lands to the states for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical (later engineering) colleges. Also known as the Morrill Act, after its sponsor, Congressman Justin Morrill of Vermont. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    55. 55. War Transforms the North (cont'd)  New York Draft Riot - A mostly Irish-immigrant protest against conscription in New York City in July 1863 that escalated into class and racial warfare that had to be quelled by federal troops. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    56. 56. The lynching of a black New Yorker during the Draft Riot in July 1863. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    57. 57. The Northern Economy • After an initial downturn before the war, the northern economy picked up quickly. New industries boomed and new inventions increased manufacturing efficiency. • The productivity of northern agriculture grew as well, fueled by the emergence of farm machinery. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    58. 58. Trade Unions and Strikebreakers • Though wages increased during the war, prices rose higher, reviving the trade union movement. By 1865, 200,000 northern workers belonged to unions. • The prospect of large profits bred greed and corruption. Profiteers traded with the enemy, swindled the government, and sold shoddy goods to the army. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    59. 59. Trade Unions and Strikebreakers (cont'd) • The northern economy, however, fed, clothed, and armed the Union soldiers as well keeping most civilians employed and well fed. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    60. 60. Northern Women and the War • More than 100,000 northern women worked in various industries during the war. • Women also worked in the expanding government bureaucracy and as nurses. • But the war also left thousands of women widowed and devastated. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    61. 61. Northern Women and the War (cont’d) • The new economic opportunities created by the war opened up women’s options, including admission to higher education. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    62. 62. The Confederacy Disintegrates The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    63. 63. Southern Politics • Southern politics was hindered by dissent that grew stronger as the Confederacy’s fortunes declined. • States’ rights was a major obstacle to the development of central authority. • Because their were no political parties, Davis could not appeal to party loyalty to control dissent. • Calls for peace arose as early as 1863. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    64. 64. Southern Politics (cont'd) • Attempts by Davis and other Confederate leaders to build a strong sense of Confederate nationalism failed. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    65. 65. Southern Faith • In a devout society convinced it was waging a holy war, white southerners interpreted their mounting losses from different spiritual perspectives. • Black southerners also found hope and biblical confirmation that the war was fulfillment of prophecy. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    66. 66. The Southern Economy • By 1863, the South experienced difficulty feeding its population. Bread riots broke out in Mobile, Atlanta, and Richmond. • As the war progressed, Southern soldiers had threadbare uniforms with many garments and arms taken from the Union. Their families suffered under similar conditions. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    67. 67. The Southern Economy (cont’d) • The Union and Confederate armies threatened civilians with robbery, rape, and murder. • Many slaves stopped working and abandoned the plantations. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    68. 68. the 1863 food riot The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    69. 69. Southern Women and the War • Southern women managed plantations, working in fields alongside slaves. • Southern women also worked in factories making uniforms and munitions, government offices and they taught school. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    70. 70. Southern Women and the War (cont’d) • As the war continued, many women helped their deserting husbands and relatives elude Confederate authorities. • By 1864, many southern women had tired of the war. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    71. 71. The Union Prevails 1864–1865 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    72. 72. Grant’s Plan to End the War • Grant was appointed commander of the Union forces. He coordinated the Union war effort and changed the tempo of the war. • Grant’s strategy was to hammer the enemy continuously. Sherman was advancing through Georgia and Grant’s major focus was on Lee. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    73. 73. Grant’s Plan to End the War (cont'd) • At the Battle of the Wilderness, Grant surprised Lee by not withdrawing after both sides endured heavy casualties. Grant pursued Lee fighting at Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor but heavy casualties led to criticism. • Sherman moved through Georgia and captured Atlanta. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    74. 74. MAP 15–6 Grant and Lee in Virginia, 1864–1865 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    75. 75. White family “refugeeing.” The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    76. 76. General Ulysses S. Grant had the pews from a local church moved to a grove of trees where he and his officers planned the following day’s assault The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    77. 77. The Election of 1864 and Sherman’s March • George McClellan opposed Lincoln in the 1864 election. • The fall of Atlanta and later victories boosted support for Lincoln who won the election. • The Thirteenth Amendment outlawing slavery was passed in 1865. • Sherman marched from Atlanta to the sea leaving ruin and devastation in his wake. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    78. 78. The Election of 1864 and Sherman’s March (cont'd) • Some Confederate leaders proposed arming slaves but the slaves responded with little enthusiasm.  Thirteenth Amendment - Constitutional amendment ratified in 1865 that freed all slaves throughout the United States. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    79. 79. MAP 15–7 The Atlanta Campaign and Sherman’s March, 1864–1865 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    80. 80. “Miscegenation Ball” 1864. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    81. 81. The Road to Appomattox and the Death of Lincoln • Lee’s army remained the obstacle to Union victory. He abandoned the defense of Richmond which fell to Union forces. • Grant’s army caught up with Lee’s forces at Appomattox Court House in Virginia where Lee surrendered, ending the war. • In Washington, celebration greeted the Confederate surrender but it was muted by the assassination of Lincoln. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    82. 82. Major Battles of the Civil War, 1861–1865 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    83. 83. Major Battles of the Civil War, 1861–1865 The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    84. 84. General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox after his surrender to Union General U. S .Grant on April 9, 1865. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    85. 85. Conclusion The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    86. 86. Conclusion • The Civil War caused over one million casualties, dead and wounded. • It left the South devastated. One in four men between 20 and 40 died. Forty percent of the livestock were lost and so was half the farm machinery. • The Union victory solved the constitutional problem of secession and ended slavery. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    87. 87. Conclusion (cont'd) • For black Southerners, emancipation was the conflict’s most important result. • The Civil War also stimulated a host of diverse changes that unfolded over time. The American Journey: A History of the United States, Brief Sixth Edition Goldfield • Abbott • Argersinger • DeJohn Anderson • Barney • Weir • Argersinger Copyright ©2011, ©2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
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