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Maps

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  • 1. Class 3a: The Round Earth, or Map Projections and Climate Basics
  • 2. How hot is it?
    • What determines temperature?
    • Insolation ( in coming so lar radi ation )
    • Cloud cover
    • Altitude
    • Water vapor in the air
    • Land or water
    • Air movement (wind)
  • 3. Insolation
    • Only at one latitude at a time are the sun’s rays overhead
      • Between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn
    • Everywhere else, rays are diffused
  • 4. What causes the seasons?
    • Volunteers?
    • The tilt of the earth
    • The angle of sunlight
    • The change in heat received from the sun
  • 5.  
  • 6. Latitude and longitude
    • Latitude: how far north or south
    • From 0° at equator to 90° at poles
    • Each parallel of latitude is a different size
    • Key latitudes: Equator, 23.5°N and S
  • 7. Latitude and longitude
    • Longitude: how far east or west
    • East or west of what?
    • 1884 agreement on prime meridian at Greenwich
    • Each meridian of longitude is the same distance around
    • Not parallel lines
    • Key longitudes: Prime Meridian, International Date Line, 100 th meridian
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. Map projections
    • Project a round globe onto a flat surface
    • Options?
    • Stretch out some areas
    • Cut out some areas
    • Shrink some areas
  • 11. Map projections
    • Three properties to consider
      • Area (equal-area or equivalent)
      • Shape (conformal)
      • Distance (equidistant)
      • Choose two out of three
    • How large an area?
    • Purpose of the map
    • Ulterior motives?
  • 12. Cylindrical projections
    • Shapes are preserved
    • But not area!
    • Mercator projection
    • Deliberate distortion?
      • Cold War
      • Colonialism
  • 13. Cylindrical projections: Gall- Peters
    • Adjusting Mercator for a more “just” map
    • Also preserves area
    • Distorts shape differently
  • 14. Conic projections
    • Best for hemispheres or small regions
    • Area and shape only slightly distorted
  • 15. Planar projections
    • Equidistant; good for navigation
    • Only good for one hemisphere
    • Distorts area, not shape
  • 16. Other projections
    • Based on more complicated math
    • Interrupted, oval, combination
    Goode Robinson
  • 17.  
  • 18. Dymaxion
  • 19.