64 rack machine to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California
23 Feb 2004 – 6 rack machine to ASTRON, a leading astronomy organization in the Netherlands to use IBM's Blue Gene/L supercomputer technology as the basis to develop a new type of radio telescope capable of looking back billions of years in time.
May/June 2004 – 1 rack system to Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois
Sept 2004 IBM - 4 rack Blue Gene/L supercomputer to Japan's National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) to investigate the shapes of proteins.
6 Jun 2005 - 4 rack machine to The Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), in Lausanne, Switzerland to simulate the workings of the human brain .
In computer science, the kernel is the fundamental part of an operating system.
It is a piece of software responsible for providing secure access to the machine's hardware to various computer programs.
Since there are many programs, and access to the hardware is limited, the kernel is also responsible for deciding when and how long a program should be able to make use of a piece of hardware, which is called multiplexing.
Accessing the hardware directly can be very complex, so kernels usually implement some hardware abstractions to hide complexity and provide a clean and uniform interface to the underlying hardware, which helps application programmers.