Notes for Rapid Prototyping


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Notes for Rapid Prototyping

  1. 1. Page 1 Notes for Rapid Prototyping • I first encountered the problematic relationship between plans and situated actions when, after years of trying to follow Gagné's theory of instructional design, I repeatedly found myself, as an instructional designer, making ad hoc decisions throughout the design and development process. At first, I attributed this discrepancy to my own inexperience as an instructional designer. Later, when I became more experienced, I attributed it to the incompleteness of instructional design theories. Theories were, after all, only robust and mature at the end of a long developmental process, and instructional design theories had a very short history. Lately, however, I have begun to believe that the discrepancy between instructional design theories and instructional design practice will never be resolved because instructional design practice will always be a form of situated activity (i.e. depend on the specific, concrete, and unique circumstances of the project I am working on). — from Streibel, M. (1991). Instructional plans and situated learning: The challenge of Suchman's theory of situated action for instructional designers and instructional systems. In G.Anglin (Ed.),Instructional technology: Past, Present, and Future (pp. 122). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. History • Originated in 1960s in manufacturing industry with the development of computer controlled tools • 1970s brought the creation of mathematical 3D solid models and the first Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems • 1980s Introduction of Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF); Rapid Prototyping is used in many manufacturing processes • From 1980s, Rapid Prototyping is also used throughout most software development design Why do it? • Clarify Needs • Enhance creativity • Reduce errors in final product • Increase usability • Increase customer acceptance Risks • Method not understood by client or developers • Endless revision • Premature release • Goal/feature creep • Project management requirements different Michael M. Grant 2010
  2. 2. Page 2 • Vertical Prototypes - in-depth functionality for a few features • Horizontal Prototypes - entire screen with no underlying functionality • Paper prototypes - easy to change. users perceive that it is easier to change. Often throwing in color or artwork make a use thing that they cannot suggest changes. • Wireframe Prototypes / Wireframing - nothing visual, just shaded blocks explaining what will be there • Storyboarding • Electronic prototypes (inspiration) Look and Feel Prototype • Can deal with style • Colors • Effects, such as drop shadows • Divisions of screen areas (real estate) • Use of mouse gestures Media Prototype • Can explore use of sound effects, narration, 3D illustration, video, etc. Navigation Prototype • Can illustrate the capabilities to move from one activity to another • How to access reference materials and services, such as glosssary, notebook, calculator, personal performance data Interactivity Prototype • Can illustrate designs of the context, activity and feedback • How do the practice items work? • What types of interactions are embedded to interact with the content Advantages • It encourages and requires active student participation in the design process. • Iteration and change are natural consequences of instructional systems development. Clients tend to change their minds. • Clients don't know their requirements until they see them implemented. • An approved prototype is the equivalent of a paper specification with one exception—errors can be detected earlier. Michael M. Grant 2010
  3. 3. Page 3 • Prototyping can increase creativity through quicker user feedback. • Prototyping accelerates the development cycle. Disadvantages • Prototyping can lead to a design-by-repair philosophy, which is only an excuse for lack of discipline. • Prototyping does not eliminate the need for front-end analysis. It cannot help if the situation is not amenable to instructional design. • A prototype cannot substitute completely for a paper analysis. • There may be many instructional design problems which are not addressed bv prototvping. • Prototyping may lead to premature commitment to a design if it is not remembered that a design is only a hypothesis. • When prototyping an instructional package, creeping featurism (the adding of bells and whistles) may lead to designs that get out of control. Tips • Suspend good programming practices that require time or thought; faster is better. • Don’t be concerned with media or a polished look. • Fake everything you can. • Focus on interactivity, because people have trouble judging it until they’ve actually seen it. • Remember more prototypes are better than fewer, more complete prototypes. Design + Development • Rapid prototyping can be used with both design and development. • I’m recommending that you conduct design and development concurrently, using rapid prototyping for developing and feeding the information you need for design. References Allen, M. (2007). Designing successful e-Learning, Michael Allen's online learning library: Forget what you know about instructional design and do something interesting. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Allen Interactions. (n.d.) Supervisor effectiveness: Employee security [interactive module, images]. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from Lynch, M.M. & Roecker, J. (2007). Project managing e-learning: A handbook for successful design, delivery and management. New York: Routledge. Piskurich, G.M. (2006). Rapid instructional design: Learning ID fast and right (2nd Michael M. Grant 2010
  4. 4. Page 4 ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Rieber, L.P. (1999). Comparing design and development within rapid prototyping and formative evaluation [image]. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from Streibel, M. (1991). Instructional plans and situated learning: The challenge of Suchman's theory of situated action for instructional designers and instructional systems. In G.Anglin (Ed.),Instructional technology: Past, Present, and Future (pp. 122). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Tripp, S., & Bichelmeyer, B. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy [image]. Educational Technology Research & Development, 38(1), 31-44. Michael M. Grant 2010