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Engaging Students with Inquiry
 

Engaging Students with Inquiry

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Presentation for Baptist College of Health Science by Dr. Michael M. Grant. Focuses on problem-based and project-based learning.

Presentation for Baptist College of Health Science by Dr. Michael M. Grant. Focuses on problem-based and project-based learning.

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    Engaging Students with Inquiry Engaging Students with Inquiry Presentation Transcript

    • Engaging Students with Inquiry Strategies for Effective Teaching & Engaging Students
    • Michael  M.  Grant   Instruc(onal  Design  &  Technology   h5p://viral-­‐notebook.com   mgrant2@memphis.edu   @michaelmgrant   Michael M. Grant 2012
    • http://ijpbl.org Michael M. Grant 2012
    • Agenda • How learning occurs •  Problem-based learning " & examples •  Project-based learning " & examples •  Engaging strategies online " & on ground
    • How does learning occur?
    • Cognitive Learning
    • Cognitive Load
    • Constructivist Learning
    • Assimilation v. Accommodation
    • Who likes learning new stuff?
    • Who likes going school?
    • We’ve got to change that! It’s up to me & you!
    • Authen(c  Learning   Ar(ficial   Real  world  relevance   Situated  Cogni(on   CraI  Appren(ceships   Problem-­‐based  Learning   Project-­‐based  Learning   Cogni(ve  Flexibility  Theory   Direct  Instruc(on   Cases/Case  Studies  
    • Authen(c  Learning   Ar(ficial   Real  world  relevance   Situated  Cogni(on   CraI  Appren(ceships   Cogni(ve  Flexibility  Theory   Direct  Instruc(on   Cases/Case  Studies   Problem-­‐based  Learning   Project-­‐based  Learning  
    • Problem-based Learning 1.  Students must have the responsibility for their own learning. 2.  The problem simulations used in problem-based learning must be ill-structured and allow for free inquiry. 3.  Learning should be integrated from a wide range of disciplines or subjects. 4.  Collaboration is essential. 5.  What students learn during their self-directed learning must be applied back to the problem with reanalysis and resolution. 6.  A closing analysis of what has been learned from work with the problem and a discussion of what concepts and principles have been learned is essential. 7.  Self and peer assessment should be carried out at the completion of each problem and at the end of every curricular unit. 8.  The activities carried out in problem-based learning must be those valued in the real world. 9.  Student examinations must measure student progress towards the goals of problem- based learning. 10.  Problem-based learning must be the pedagogical base in the curriculum and not part of a didactic curriculum.
    • The PBL Learning Process Learners encounter a problem and attempt to solve it with information they already possess, allowing them to appreciate what they already know. They also identify what they need to learn to better understand the problem and how to resolve it. Once they have worked with the problem as far as possible and identified what they need to learn, the learners engage in self-directed study to research the information needed, finding and using a variety of information resources.
    • The PBL Learning Processcont’d The learners then return to the problem and apply what they learned to their work with the problem in order to more fully understand and resolve the problem. This process is iterative until the problem is resolved. After they have finished their problem work, the learners assess themselves and each other to develop skills in self-assessment and the constructive assessment of peers.
    • The PBL Learning Processcont’d The learners then return to the problem and apply what they learned to their work with the problem in order to more fully understand and resolve the problem. This process is iterative until the problem is resolved. After they have finished their problem work, the learners assess themselves and each other to develop skills in self-assessment and the constructive assessment of peers. PBL Tutorial
    • A more accurate title might be" SPBIICRL
    • A more accurate title might be" “student-centered, problem- based, inquiry-based, integrated, collaborative, reiterative learning.” SPBIICRL But that’s not as sexy.
    • Some Examples
    • Math & Environmental Science: ! We Need Trees •  We need the trees — Scene One" https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1OP- kYkWquyMT5Kfb-k74Cu9bmvK0FwoopU0Mbw-jQ5w •  We need the trees — Scene Two" https://docs.google.com/document/pub? id=11f9nmQmUAF8QIkU2K6uzE3tALPF0i1We6CaJZDzGnOk
    • Genetics & Math: ! Wondering about Via, too? •  Overview •  Scene 1 •  Scene 2 •  Scene 3 •  Scene 4 •  Learning Grid
    • ijpbl.org
    • Analyzing the PBL Approach 1.  What is the product or artifact of learning? Can you hold it? 2.  Is the product or artifact of learning the same for everyone? 3.  Does the instructional model provide steps/guides for the elements of instruction. 4.  How is it assessed? 5.  Why would you do it?
    • PBL Problems •  The problems used are ill-structured, messy problems like those the learner will encounter in the real world. •  The learning process requires the skills expected of learners when the encounter problems in their lives and careers.
    • Generating the Problem •  The problem must be authentic. •  The problem has one or more solutions with one or more pathways to the outcome. •  Initial presentation of the problem should provide minimal information requiring the problem solver to formulate requests for vital information. •  Information should be available upon request or by progressive disclosure. •  Expert review of the case will anticipate the problem solving process and needed information. •  Expert review will predict some alternative pathways and non-productive pathways.
    • Generating the Problem 1.  What is the desired outcome? 2.  What is the plan that would address the desired outcome? 3.  What is the problem solution(s) that would generate the plan? 4.  What key pieces of information would lead to the solution(s)? 6.  What key pieces of information might be external to the solution, but related? 7.  What pieces of information might be requested but irrelevant? 8.  How does the problem present? 9.  What are the cues/clues that need to be included to prompt problem solving?
    • Teacher Role •  Facilitator, guide on the side, coach, model, scaffold •  Will not align with everyone’s epistemology. •  Pitfalls?
    • Assessment in PBL Who? What? When? How?
    • Elements to consider when planning for PBL
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy Evalua(on   Synthesis   Analysis   Applica(on   Comprehension   Knowledge   Lower   Order   Thinking   Skills   (LOTS)   Higher   Order   Thinking   Skills   (HOTS)  
    • Course  Embed   1  (me   Whole  course   Across  courses   Collabora(on   None/minimal   Essen(al   Ambiguity   Low   High   Solu(ons   Single   Mul(ple   Problem  Solving   Single  paths   Mul(ple  paths   Difficulty   Applica(on   Analysis   Evalua(on  Synthesis  
    • Expert/teacher  role   Direc(ve   Facilita(ve   Assessment  Ar(facts   Product   Process   Mul(ple   Assessment  Perspec(ves   Single/Instructor   Mul(ple   Authen(city   Ar(ficial   Real  world  relevance   Resources   Just  in  case   Just  in  (me   Instruc(onal  Purpose   Problem  Iden(fica(on   Problem  Solving     Both  
    • Goal-based Scenarios •  Target skills have been identified for the learners. •  Mission refers to the primary goal that the learner pursues within the scenario. •  Mission focus determines the class of task the learner will accomplish (i.e., Design, Diagnosis, Discovery, Control). •  Cover story refers to the premise designed by the instructor under which the mission will be pursued. •  Operations are the specific activities (tasks) learners will go through to learn the target skills in the mission.
    • Components of Projects 1. Production of a learning artifact 2. An introduction, emotional anchor, or mission 3. Driving question 4. Definition of the learning task 5. Procedure for investigation 6. Suggested resources 7. Scaffolding 8. Collaborations 9. Reflections &transfer activities
    • (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
    • (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. 2. Think about where or how that knowledge or skill is used in the real world and would matter to your students. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
    • (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. 2. Think about where or how that knowledge or skill is used in the real world and would matter to your students. 3. Break out the Tubric. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
    • http://tubric.com
    • http://tubric.com
    • (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. 2. Think about where or how that knowledge or skill is used in the real world and would matter to your students. 3. Break out the Tubric. 4. Translate your knowledge/skill with your context into a driving question. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
    • (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. 2. Think about where or how that knowledge or skill is used in the real world and would matter to your students. 3. Break out the Tubric. 4. Translate your knowledge/skill with your context into a driving question. 5. Try 2-3 questions to see which one is the best. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
    • COMPONENTS OF PROJECTS
    • Projects require a task or series of tasks.
    • Students follow a process or investigation to complete task(s) and produce artifact. Project are not recipes.
    • Project task(s) afford multiple paths to completion and learning.
    • Students should have choice in the topic(s) and/or process of investigation.
    • Scaffolds help students perform at a higher level with project tasks.
    • Resources are evaluated and synthesized to produce artifact(s).
    • Collaborations allows students to negotiate content and receive feedback.
    • Assessment encompasses process and product.
    • Artifacts afford multiple representations of knowledge. Projects are not recipes.
    • Projects should encourage students to at least apply knowledge.
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy Evalua(on   Synthesis   Analysis   Applica(on   Comprehension   Knowledge   Lower   Order   Thinking   Skills   (LOTS)   Higher   Order   Thinking   Skills   (HOTS)  
    • It is practically impossible for an artifact to represent all that has been learned.
    • How Teachers Use Project-based Learning Reinforcer Extender Initiator Navigator
    • FACTORS THAT WILL INFLUENCE THE SUCCESS OF PBL FOR FACULTY & LEARNERS
    • Teachers and students must recognize and accept their roles in project-based learning.
    • Teachers and students must be comfortable with the physical messiness of project-based learning.
    • Teachers and students must have a tolerance for ambiguity in project-based learning.
    • Project-based learning must be integrated with the reality outside a teacher’s classroom.
    • This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. Michael M. Grant, PhD 2013