Definite andIndefinite:A Critical Perspective On DefiningMobile Learning and Mobile LearningEnvironmentsMichael M. Grant, ...
Michael M. GrantThe University of Memphis@michaelmgranthttp:/     /viral-notebook.com
DEFINITIONS OF MOBILELEARNING
“Extensions of Distance Education & eLearningThe intersection of mobile computing andelearning … eLearning independent of ...
“Extensions of Distance Education & eLearningM-learning is an emerging area of distanceeducation. E-learning … is now bein...
“          Exploitation of TechnologyExploitation of ubiquitous handheld hardware,wireless networking and mobile telephony...
“         Exploitation of TechnologyTakes advantage of ubiquitous networks andpervasive digital devices.                  ...
“          Exploitation of TechnologyDevices which a lady can carry in her handbagor a gentleman can carry in his pocket …...
“         Mediation with TechnologyMediated through a mobile device.             — Herrington & Herrington (2007)         ...
“              Anytime, AnyplaceIs not constrained by space or time … allaspects of the students’ lives and could takeplac...
INADEQUATE DEFINITIONS
•  Definitions based in distance education and   elearning may have faulty assumptions.Inadequate definitions
Distance           Learning          eLearning          mLearning                            Georgiev,                    ...
Distance                           Learning               eLearning   mLearning                                      adapt...
•  Definitions based in distance education and   elearning may have faulty assumptions.•  Definitions disregard or do not ...
CULTURE & SITUATEDNESS
•  Mobility with learning affords authentic   interactions within cultural settings.•  Learning in situ provides authentic...
•  Mobility with learning affords authentic   interactions within cultural settings.•  Learning in situ provides authentic...
•  Mobility with learning affords authentic   interactions within cultural settings.•  Learning in situ provides authentic...
•  Mobility with learning affords authentic   interactions within cultural settings.•  Learning in situ provides authentic...
MEDIATION
•  Mobile devices and mobile services mediate   interactions with physical and networked   environments.•  Mediated intera...
•  Mobile devices and mobile services mediate   interactions with physical and networked   environments.•  Mediated intera...
“                   MediationMobile learners “reshape what defines thedevices, as well as what they in turn need tolearn.”...
FORMAL & INFORMALLEARNING
•  Formal learning is considered where learners are   engaging with materials developed by a teacher   to be used during a...
•  Formal learning is considered where learners are   engaging with materials developed by a teacher   to be used during a...
•  Much of mobile learning literature focuses on the   informal learning component.•  Fragmented, transient knowledge may ...
•  Much of mobile learning literature focuses on the   informal learning component.•  Fragmented, transient knowledge may ...
LEARNER AUTONOMY, SELF-DIRECTION & SELF-REGULATION
•  Mobile learners are physically and socially   separated from peers and teachers.•  Learning itself with mobile devices ...
•  Mobile learners are physically and socially   separated from peers and teachers.•  Learning itself with mobile devices ...
•  Mobile learners are physically and socially   separated from peers and teachers.•  Learning itself with mobile devices ...
WHAT DOES ‘MOBILE’ MEAN?
•  Mobile is used often without a clear definition.•  Mobile described both identity and influences.•  Mobile reflects the...
•  Mobile is used often without a clear definition.•  Mobile described both identity and influences.•  Mobile reflects the...
•  Mobile is used often without a clear definition.•  Mobile described both identity and influences.•  Mobile reflects the...
•  Mobile is used often without a clear definition.•  Mobile described both identity and influences.•  Mobile reflects the...
MOBILE DEVICES & SERVICES
•  Characteristics of mobile devices make them   attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.Mobile Devices & Services
1.    highly portable      5.    adaptable2.    individual           6.    persistent3.    unobtrusive          7.    usef...
•  Characteristics of mobile devices make them   attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.•  Multiple devices can...
•  Characteristics of mobile devices make them   attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.•  Multiple devices can...
•  Characteristics of mobile devices make them   attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.•  Multiple devices can...
•  Characteristics of mobile devices make them   attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.•  Multiple devices can...
PARADOXES OF LEARNING INMOBILE SETTINGS
The more learning is decentralized, themore important guidance andscaffolding will become.Paradoxes of learning inmobile s...
Increasing cooperation requiresincreasing personal responsibility.Paradoxes of learning inmobile settings
Fragmented information does notchange into knowledge until it hasbeen internalized.Paradoxes of learning inmobile settings
As the amount of communicationincreases and the closer it comes toreal time, the more time we need torespond.Paradoxes of ...
Increasing communication andinformation increases chaos.Paradoxes of learning inmobile settings
The time used to look for informationdecreases the time one can dedicate toprocessing that information.Paradoxes of learni...
QUESTIONS UNANSWERED
•  Hannafin (1992) argues that learning environments   for emerging technologies are best suited for   SCLEs and construct...
•  Reeves and others have asked us to identify the   “active ingredients” in instruction and learning   environments in or...
MKO is                       mobileContent is                                 Device is mobile                            ...
“              On mLearningDifferent letter prefixes promote selling,they appeal to people and help catchtheir attention, ...
THANKS.Michael M. Grantmgrant2@memphis.edu | @michaelmgrant                                       Michael M. Grant 2011
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Definite And Indefinite: A Critical Perspective On Defining Mobile Learning and Mobile Learning Environments

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Mobile learning, or mlearning, has become an umbrella, catch-all term for just about anything related to teaching and learning with mobile technologies. However, using the term dilutes the meaning, and it fails to recognize the inherent pedagogical stances that individuals are implementing. The purpose of this paper is to examination the definitions of mobile learning, identify their inadequacies, and propose components for a mobile learning environment with questions to consider for research and instructional design. Dr Michael M. Grant, PhD

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Definite And Indefinite: A Critical Perspective On Defining Mobile Learning and Mobile Learning Environments

  1. 1. Definite andIndefinite:A Critical Perspective On DefiningMobile Learning and Mobile LearningEnvironmentsMichael M. Grant, PhDmgrant2@memphis.edu | @michaelmgrantAECT | November 2011 Michael M. Grant 2011
  2. 2. Michael M. GrantThe University of Memphis@michaelmgranthttp:/ /viral-notebook.com
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS OF MOBILELEARNING
  4. 4. “Extensions of Distance Education & eLearningThe intersection of mobile computing andelearning … eLearning independent of locationin time or space. — Quinn (2000) “
  5. 5. “Extensions of Distance Education & eLearningM-learning is an emerging area of distanceeducation. E-learning … is now beingtransformed by the Internet and by the power ofwireless technologies. “ — McGreal (2009)
  6. 6. “ Exploitation of TechnologyExploitation of ubiquitous handheld hardware,wireless networking and mobile telephony tofacilitate, support, enhance, and extend thereach for teaching and learning. “ — Mobile Learning Network (2010)
  7. 7. “ Exploitation of TechnologyTakes advantage of ubiquitous networks andpervasive digital devices. — Wagner & Wilson (2005) “
  8. 8. “ Exploitation of TechnologyDevices which a lady can carry in her handbagor a gentleman can carry in his pocket …theprovision of education and training on PDAs/palmtops/handhelds, smartphones, and mobilephones. “ — Keegan (2005)
  9. 9. “ Mediation with TechnologyMediated through a mobile device. — Herrington & Herrington (2007) “
  10. 10. “ Anytime, AnyplaceIs not constrained by space or time … allaspects of the students’ lives and could takeplace anytime and in between other activities. — Ng, Nicholas, Loke & Torabi (2010) “
  11. 11. INADEQUATE DEFINITIONS
  12. 12. •  Definitions based in distance education and elearning may have faulty assumptions.Inadequate definitions
  13. 13. Distance Learning eLearning mLearning Georgiev, Georgieva, & Smrikarov (2004)Inadequate definitions
  14. 14. Distance Learning eLearning mLearning adapted from So (2010)Inadequate definitions
  15. 15. •  Definitions based in distance education and elearning may have faulty assumptions.•  Definitions disregard or do not adequately consider the more knowledgeable other.•  Definitions that consider constructivist stances alone do not consider performance support or direct instruction methods.•  Definitions based in technologies are threatened by obsolescence.Inadequate definitions
  16. 16. CULTURE & SITUATEDNESS
  17. 17. •  Mobility with learning affords authentic interactions within cultural settings.•  Learning in situ provides authentic settings and lend real-world credence to learning contents.•  Context-aware, or location-based services, allow specific learning tasks to occur at a particular location.•  The value and utility of location-based services is just beginning to show promise.Culture & situatedness
  18. 18. •  Mobility with learning affords authentic interactions within cultural settings.•  Learning in situ provides authentic settings and lend real-world credence to learning contents.•  Context-aware, or location-based services, allow specific learning tasks to occur at a particular location.•  The value and utility of location-based services is just beginning to show promise.Culture & situatedness
  19. 19. •  Mobility with learning affords authentic interactions within cultural settings.•  Learning in situ provides authentic settings and lend real-world credence to learning contents.•  Context-aware, or location-based services, allow specific learning tasks to occur at a particular location.•  The value and utility of location-based services is just beginning to show promise.Culture & situatedness
  20. 20. •  Mobility with learning affords authentic interactions within cultural settings.•  Learning in situ provides authentic settings and lend real-world credence to learning contents.•  Context-aware, or location-based services, allow specific learning tasks to occur at a particular location.•  The value and utility of location-based services is just beginning to show promise.Culture & situatedness
  21. 21. MEDIATION
  22. 22. •  Mobile devices and mobile services mediate interactions with physical and networked environments.•  Mediated interactions encourage knowledge construction.Mediation
  23. 23. •  Mobile devices and mobile services mediate interactions with physical and networked environments.•  Mediated interactions encourage knowledge construction.Mediation
  24. 24. “ MediationMobile learners “reshape what defines thedevices, as well as what they in turn need tolearn.” — Koole & Ally (2006) “
  25. 25. FORMAL & INFORMALLEARNING
  26. 26. •  Formal learning is considered where learners are engaging with materials developed by a teacher to be used during a program of instruction.•  Informal learning is described as learning that people do on their own.•  Mobile devices afford both formal and informal learning.Formal & informal learning
  27. 27. •  Formal learning is considered where learners are engaging with materials developed by a teacher to be used during a program of instruction.•  Informal learning is described as learning that people do on their own.•  Mobile devices afford both formal and informal learning.Formal & informal learning
  28. 28. •  Much of mobile learning literature focuses on the informal learning component.•  Fragmented, transient knowledge may occur from informal learning.•  Disconnected pieces of information must be integrated and internalized.Informal learning
  29. 29. •  Much of mobile learning literature focuses on the informal learning component.•  Fragmented, transient knowledge may occur from informal learning.•  Disconnected pieces of information must be integrated and internalized.Informal learning
  30. 30. LEARNER AUTONOMY, SELF-DIRECTION & SELF-REGULATION
  31. 31. •  Mobile learners are physically and socially separated from peers and teachers.•  Learning itself with mobile devices and mobile services may change.•  There is not consensus on the use of self- regulation with mobile learning.Learner Autonomy, self-direction & self-regulation
  32. 32. •  Mobile learners are physically and socially separated from peers and teachers.•  Learning itself with mobile devices and mobile services may change.•  There is not consensus on the use of self- regulation with mobile learning.Learner Autonomy, self-direction & self-regulation
  33. 33. •  Mobile learners are physically and socially separated from peers and teachers.•  Learning itself with mobile devices and mobile services may change.•  There is not consensus on the use of self- regulation with mobile learning.Learner Autonomy, self-direction & self-regulation
  34. 34. WHAT DOES ‘MOBILE’ MEAN?
  35. 35. •  Mobile is used often without a clear definition.•  Mobile described both identity and influences.•  Mobile reflects the fluidity and flexibility of mobile devices and mobile services.•  Mobile augments learners.What does ‘mobile’ mean?
  36. 36. •  Mobile is used often without a clear definition.•  Mobile described both identity and influences.•  Mobile reflects the fluidity and flexibility of mobile devices and mobile services.•  Mobile augments learners.What does ‘mobile’ mean?
  37. 37. •  Mobile is used often without a clear definition.•  Mobile described both identity and influences.•  Mobile reflects the fluidity and flexibility of mobile devices and mobile services.•  Mobile augments learners.What does ‘mobile’ mean?
  38. 38. •  Mobile is used often without a clear definition.•  Mobile described both identity and influences.•  Mobile reflects the fluidity and flexibility of mobile devices and mobile services.•  Mobile augments learners.What does ‘mobile’ mean?
  39. 39. MOBILE DEVICES & SERVICES
  40. 40. •  Characteristics of mobile devices make them attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.Mobile Devices & Services
  41. 41. 1.  highly portable 5.  adaptable2.  individual 6.  persistent3.  unobtrusive 7.  useful4.  available anywhere 8.  intuitiveCharacteristics of mobiledevices (Sharples, 2000)
  42. 42. •  Characteristics of mobile devices make them attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.•  Multiple devices can be exploited.•  Mobile device adoption does not guarantee its potential or use.•  Mobile device adoption does not guarantee the adoption of mobile services.•  Little attention given to the distinction between mobile devices and mobile services.Mobile Devices & Services
  43. 43. •  Characteristics of mobile devices make them attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.•  Multiple devices can be exploited.•  Mobile device adoption does not guarantee its potential or use.•  Mobile device adoption does not guarantee the adoption of mobile services.•  Little attention given to the distinction between mobile devices and mobile services.Mobile Devices & Services
  44. 44. •  Characteristics of mobile devices make them attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.•  Multiple devices can be exploited.•  Mobile device adoption does not guarantee its potential or use.•  Mobile device adoption does not guarantee the adoption of mobile services.•  Little attention given to the distinction between mobile devices and mobile services.Mobile Devices & Services
  45. 45. •  Characteristics of mobile devices make them attractive for learners, teachers, and developers.•  Multiple devices can be exploited.•  Mobile device adoption does not guarantee its potential or use.•  Mobile device adoption does not guarantee the adoption of mobile services.•  Little attention given to the distinction between mobile devices and mobile services.Mobile Devices & Services
  46. 46. PARADOXES OF LEARNING INMOBILE SETTINGS
  47. 47. The more learning is decentralized, themore important guidance andscaffolding will become.Paradoxes of learning inmobile settings
  48. 48. Increasing cooperation requiresincreasing personal responsibility.Paradoxes of learning inmobile settings
  49. 49. Fragmented information does notchange into knowledge until it hasbeen internalized.Paradoxes of learning inmobile settings
  50. 50. As the amount of communicationincreases and the closer it comes toreal time, the more time we need torespond.Paradoxes of learning inmobile settings
  51. 51. Increasing communication andinformation increases chaos.Paradoxes of learning inmobile settings
  52. 52. The time used to look for informationdecreases the time one can dedicate toprocessing that information.Paradoxes of learning inmobile settings
  53. 53. QUESTIONS UNANSWERED
  54. 54. •  Hannafin (1992) argues that learning environments for emerging technologies are best suited for SCLEs and constructivist activities.•  But what of direct instruction, practice over time, and performance support?Questions Unanswered
  55. 55. •  Reeves and others have asked us to identify the “active ingredients” in instruction and learning environments in order to define their impact.•  Reeves also has suggested that we learning with, from, and about media.Questions Unanswered
  56. 56. MKO is mobileContent is Device is mobile mobile Mobile Learning Environment Data services Learner is are mobile persistent Cultures & Settings
  57. 57. “ On mLearningDifferent letter prefixes promote selling,they appeal to people and help catchtheir attention, but strictly speaking theyare futile and unnecessary, because … inwashed away. “the end, all unessential features are — Tella (2003)
  58. 58. THANKS.Michael M. Grantmgrant2@memphis.edu | @michaelmgrant Michael M. Grant 2011
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