Use headings and advance organizers that reflect the comprehensive examquestions and the elements or subparts of the comprehensive exam question.
Advance organizers arecritical to guide the reader.
Data from two instruments were used: (1) the Survey of Computer Use and (2) the School Observation Measure. Descriptions of the instruments are explicated in the following sections. Grant, M.M. & Mims, C. (2009).Technology integration in early childhood and primary classrooms In S. Taylor and S. Blake (Eds.) Technology for early childhood education and socialization: Developmentalapplications and methodologies (pp. 162-176). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
This paper presents (1) the development processin which how the online assessment site has been implemented with advanced Web technologies including streaming video techniques, (2) theformative evaluation results in which how the site could be improved, and (3) the implications for instructional designers. Cheon, J.P. & Grant, M.M. (2009). Active listening: Web-based assessment tool for communication and active listening skill development. TechTrends, 53(6), 24-32.
There are two types of virtual conferencing: asynchronous conferencing and synchronous conferencing. Asynchronous conferencing is both time and location independent (Greenberg, 2004; Wilkinson & Hemby, 2000). It provideslearners with flexibility of accessing large amounts of learning materials. In addition, collaboration and feedback can be implemented by email or discussion board. In contrast, synchronous conferencing makes distance among instructorand learners variable, but time is still crucial (Coventry, 1994). Synchronous conferencing can support spontaneous interaction and immediate feedback involving audio and text, as well as video (Pittman, 2003; Wilkinson & Hemby, 2000). Grant, M. M., & Cheon, J.-p. (2007). The value of using synchronous conferencing for instruction and students. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 6(3). Available online athttp://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/viewarticle.cfm?volID=6&IssueID=21&Ar ticleID=109.
Use the questions/tasks stated in the comprehensive exam questions as theorganizational structure for your responses.
Lowman (1991) defined abilities as "what one is able orpotentially able to do" (p. 11). We used this more general term in order to distinguish from IQ and general intelligence (g) (Spearman, 1904) as well as to reflect other possibletaxonomies and classifications of abilities (see e.g., Lowman, 1991). Also of interest was how the computer-mediatedartifacts produced in project-based learning reflect the learner and his or her knowledge. So technology in this study was operationlized as computer-based technologies—specifically hardware, software, and networks. Moreover, computer- mediated learning artifacts was used to describe both analog and digital products the students fashioned with the aid of computers, such as research papers and museum displays. Grant, M.M., & Branch, R.M. (2005). Project-based learning in a middle school: Tracingabilities through the artifacts of learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(1), 65-98.
Adaptive instruction means creating a learningenvironment and finding instructional approaches and techniques that conform to meet students’ individual needs (Park & Lee, 2003). Adaptive Web-based learning environments (A-WBLEs) are one form of adaptive instruction that tailor individual differences in the online environment (Inan & Grant, 2004, 2005). Inan, F.A. & Grant, M.M. (2007).Individualized Web-based instruction: Strategies and guidelines for instructional designers. In T. Kidd (Ed.) Handbook of research on instructional systems & technology. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
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