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Principles Of Management

Principles Of Management

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Transcript

  • 1. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT
    • Management – the art and science of coordinating the work of people, equipment, materials, cost, and time and within budget.
  • 2. MANAGER
    • Research shows that individuals if trained well can become effective managers. The traits of a good manager are:
    • Organized – thoughts and actions
    • Works well with others
    • Has perspective
    • Can anticipate
    • Communicates well
    • Must be motivated
    • Is an achiever
    • Delegates work
  • 3. TYPES OF MANAGEMENT
    • Functional Management
    • Project Management
  • 4. FUNCTIONAL MANAGEMENT
    • Applies to repeated work
    • Sales Strategy Development
    • People Handling
    • Training and Coaching
    • Customer Dealing
    • Motivating Team
    • Problem/dispute resolution
  • 5. PROJECT MANAGEMENT
    • Applies to one time work
    • Performance
    • Time
    • Cost
    • - performance is always a must
    • - upper management sets priorities of time and cost
  • 6. FIVE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Staffing
    • Directing
    • Controlling
  • 7. PLANNING
    • Formulating a course of action
    • Establishing major milestones
    • Starts with the statement of work
    • Continuous throughout a project
    • Integrates with all parties involved
    • Must consider constraints
    • Planning is a prerequisite to scheduling
  • 8. ORGANIZING
    • Breakdown work into definable measurable parts
    • Systematically arrange resources to fit the plan
    • Organize to focus on the work to be performed
    • Need a work breakdown structure (WBS)
    • Need organizational chart that shows responsibility and authority
  • 9. STAFFING
    • Dependable
    • Competent
    • Honest
    • Experienced
    • Hard Worker
    • Flexible
  • 10. DIRECTING
    • Motivation
    • -Pay
    • -Contributing to team
    • -Recognition
    • Communication
    • -Oral-Clear and to the point
    • -Listening- is an important part
    • Ability to Work with Others
    • -Above, Below, and beside you
    • -Outside your company
  • 11. CONTROLLING
    • Controlling is one of the most difficult tasks of management
    • There can be no control system without a baseline plan for doing the work
    • There can be no control system without good staffing with assigned responsibilities
    • Must rely on support personnel
    • Need reporting system that detect problems
    • Need procedure for corrective actions
  • 12. FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGEMENT
    • Who is going to do the work?
    • What are they going to do?
    • When will it be done?
    • How much will it cost?
    • Sometimes ask – how, where, and why
    • Always ask – what can go wrong?
    • Always have a contingency plan
  • 13. APPREHENSIONS FOR MANAGERS
    • Feeling that subordinates are too inexperienced-(you train them, or provide training for them)
    • Feeling it take more time to explain the work than doing it yourself – (managers need to delegate)
    • Fear that a mistake by a subordinate would be too costly – (need control system to check their work)
    • Feeling that subordinates don’t have time for additional assignments – (need time management, separate significant few from many trivial tasks)
  • 14. GUIDELINES FOR ASSIGNING WORK
    • Explain clearly what is expected
    • Be certain they understand what is assigned
    • Give them an opportunity to do it their way
    • Be reasonable in your expectations.
    • Be accessible to answer questions.
    • Reinforce their confidence, show trust
    • Recognize and reward successful performance
    • Hold them responsible for poor work
    • Don’t Expect perfection, but expect adequate output
  • 15. WORKING WITH PEOPLE
    • Four types of people
    • -1) Those who make things happen
    • -2) Those who watch things happen
    • -3) Those who don’t know what’s happening
    • -4) Those who don’t want to know what’s happening
  • 16. NEED FOR DECISION MAKING
    • Being decisive is a trait lacking in many people
    • Failure to be decisive (by procrastinating or vacillating) causes many things to go wrong
    • No one know what is supposed to be done
    • Work is not done because of lack of direction
    • The result is a waste of time and talent of people
    • Decisiveness is required to gain respect of others
    • Take time to deliberate, but when time for action arrives, stop thinking and get on
  • 17. DECISION MAKING
    • Need Objectives
    • Can not make good decisions unless primary objectives
    • (goals to be accomplished) are known and understood
    • You must conceptualize the end results of your decision
    • (forecast end results to see if original objective are met)
    • Once objectives are clearly defined, they must be prioritized ( separate needs from wants)
    • Once objectives are defined and prioritized, then alternatives can be analyzed
    • Implement the decision
    • Define who, does what, when, and how much
    • Assign responsibilities, give authority to act, follow-up
  • 18. GUIDELINES FOR DECISION MAKING
    • Differentiate between big decisions and little problems
    • Big problem merit real decisions (requires time)
    • Little problems shouldn’t be worried over (delegate)
    • Rely on established policies when possible
    • Many decision are routine in nature
    • Consult and check with others
    • Get opinions of other who have had similar situations
    • Avoid crisis decisions
    • Don’t decide under extreme stress (may sleep on it overnight)
    • However, many decision must be made under pressure
    • Relax, get facts, forecast, then decide
  • 19. GUIDELINES FOR DECISION MAKING
    • Don’t try to anticipate all eventualities
    • It is impossible to anticipate all eventualities
    • Eliminate anticipations with low probabilities
    • Don’t expect to be right all the time
    • There is a certain amount of risk in everything we do
    • Sometimes wrong decision are made by good people
    • Don’t expect to be right all the time, just don’t expect to be totally wrong at any time
    • Remember, many decision are not totally right or wrong, instead it’s the question of the degree of rightness
  • 20. GUIDELINES FOR DECISION MAKING
    • Cultivate decisiveness
    • Indecision creates tensions in most people
    • Tensions generate stress and further indecisiveness
    • Avoid procrastination and vacillation
    • Once your decision is made – implement it
    • Direct all efforts to achieve the decision
    • Be certain everyone knows what is to be done
    • Sometimes decisions must be altered after new information becomes available
  • 21. MAKING BETTER DECISIONS
    • Recognize your personal decision making biases
    • Involve colleagues who see the world differently from you
    • Fight the temptation to solve today’s problem with yesterday’s solution
    • Solve problem with a win – win orientation
    • Solicit information from individuals affected by the decision.
    • Make sure your are solving the right problem
    • Consider as many solutions as possible
  • 22. MAKING BETTER DECISIONS
    • Realize that even the best solutions may open the door to new problems
    • If you are using any data as the basis for you decision, verify the numbers
    • When you make a decision affecting others, share reasoning behind the decisions
    • Think in term of satisficing, not optimizing
    • Ask lot of questions
    • Learn from prior decisions
    • Ask for criticism
  • 23.
    • Reality
    • Sanity
    • Dignity
    • Integrity
    • Reputation
    • System
    CHECKS FOR DECISION MAKING
  • 24. TIME MANAGEMENT
    • Time is irreplaceable and vital to the personal and professional life of everyone
    • Managers (and everyone) spend a great deal of time communicating and interacting with others
    • It is important that time spent is productive and effective
    • Be cautious – for there are always more interesting and worthwhile things to do than time allowable to do them
  • 25. EVALUATE USE OF YOUR TIME
    • Analysis of how time is spent is necessary to determine how effective your time is used
    • Analyze time spent by keeping a daily log for 2 to 3 weeks
      • How much time doing each activity
      • Who was involved
      • What was accomplished
  • 26. COMMON TIME WASTERS
    • Telephone
    • Meetings
    • E-mails
    • Unscheduled Visitors
    • Special Requests
    • Attempting too much at once
    • Lack of goals and objectives
    • Procrastination on decisions
    • Involvement in routine items that other can handle
    • Inability to say “ no “
  • 27. GUIDELINES FOR MANAGING TIME
    • Occasionally maintain a log of how major portions of your time is spent
    • Schedule your least interesting tasks when you are at your peak in energy
    • Review your job activities that can be assigned to a subordinate
    • Regularly analyze your work to determine how and what can be combined or eliminated
    • A good manager always has the time to do the things he or she wants to do and should be doing
  • 28.
    • Bring your daily priorities in sync with your values and beliefs.
    • Take a memory course
    • Learn to speed read
    • Waste less time
    • Spend less time in crises
    • Spend less time in performing routine tasks
    • Spend more time strategically
    • Use a comprehensive priority management system
    MAKE BETTER USE OF YOUR TIME Cont…
  • 29.
    • Spend more time with people, less time with things.
    • Restore your energy
    • Improve your comm. skills.
    • Three times each day ask yourself, Is this the best use of my time.
    • Task time to improve the quality of your life.
    • Reserve one hour each day for your self
    • Find joy in doing.
    • Find joy in today.
    MAKE BETTER USE OF YOUR TIME
  • 30. COMMUNICATIONS
    • Key words of management are:
    • - communication
    • - communication
    • - communication
    • Communication involve:
    • - Speaking
    • - Writing
    • - Listening
    Conti...
  • 31.
    • Too often the “other person” does not hear or interpret the information the way we intend.
    • All communications must be clear, coherent, and to the point (don’t ramble)
    • Communications are of no value unless they are received and understood.
    • Sometimes feedback from the other party is necessary to ensure effective communications
  • 32. WAYS TO IMPROVE LISTENING
    • Commit to improve listening
    • Think about the speaker in advance
    • Limit your talking
    • Stop worrying about what you are going to say next
    • Don’t have any prejudice against the speaker.
    • Stop coming to quick conclusions about people and things
    • Become less self centered
    • Get into listening posture
    • Hold your fire
    • Focus of the speaker’s words
    • Monitor nonverbal messages
    • Ask questions
    • Tell the speak what you heard.
  • 33. RESOLVING DISAGREEMENTS WITH OTHERS
    • Listen
    • Ask questions or paraphrase
    • Remain calm
    • Know why are you arguing
    • Be firm
    • Be constructive
    • Remain descriptive, not judgmental (be objective not subjective)
    • Accept responsibility
    • Concentrate on solution
    • Focus on needs, not positions
  • 34. KEEPING YOURSELF UPDATED
    • Set aside one hour each day to read and absorb new info
    • Select an info source that fits your needs schedule
    • Subscribe to news letters in your field
    • Read good professional journals
    • Scan the front pages of newspapers
    • Join a local professional group
    • Join a book club
    • Attend meetings of professional trade associations
    • Attend seminars
    • Write articles
  • 35.
    • Look for opportunities
    • See gain where others see only loss
    • View failure as education
    • Get past your mistakes
    • Keep an open mind
    • Increase your tolerance for risk
    • Dream
    • Share your dream
    • Remain optimistic
    • Expand you knowledge
    • Expand your creativity
    IMPROVE YOUR OUTLOOK & THINKING
  • 36.
    • No shared vision and values
    • No strategy
    • Poor alignment
    • Wrong style
    • Undeveloped skills
    • Low trust
    • No self-integrity
    CHRONIC PROBLEMS IN MANAGERS
  • 37.
    • Be proactive
    • Begin with end in mind
    • Put first things first
    • Think Win / Win
    • Sharpen the saw
    • Seek first to understand, then to be understood
    • Synergize.
    SEVEN GOLDEN NUGGETS FOR MANAGERS
  • 38.
    • Wealth with out work
    • Pleasure without conscience
    • Knowledge without character
    • Business without ethics
    • Science without humility
    • Religion without sacrifice
    • Politics without principles
    SEVEN DEADLY SINS