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Principles Of Management

Principles Of Management

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  • 1. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Management – the art and science of coordinating the work of people, equipment, materials, cost, and time and within budget. </li></ul>
  • 2. MANAGER <ul><li>Research shows that individuals if trained well can become effective managers. The traits of a good manager are: </li></ul><ul><li>Organized – thoughts and actions </li></ul><ul><li>Works well with others </li></ul><ul><li>Has perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Can anticipate </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates well </li></ul><ul><li>Must be motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Is an achiever </li></ul><ul><li>Delegates work </li></ul>
  • 3. TYPES OF MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Functional Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management </li></ul>
  • 4. FUNCTIONAL MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Applies to repeated work </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Strategy Development </li></ul><ul><li>People Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Dealing </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating Team </li></ul><ul><li>Problem/dispute resolution </li></ul>
  • 5. PROJECT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Applies to one time work </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>- performance is always a must </li></ul><ul><li>- upper management sets priorities of time and cost </li></ul>
  • 6. FIVE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Directing </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul>
  • 7. PLANNING <ul><li>Formulating a course of action </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing major milestones </li></ul><ul><li>Starts with the statement of work </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous throughout a project </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates with all parties involved </li></ul><ul><li>Must consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is a prerequisite to scheduling </li></ul>
  • 8. ORGANIZING <ul><li>Breakdown work into definable measurable parts </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically arrange resources to fit the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Organize to focus on the work to be performed </li></ul><ul><li>Need a work breakdown structure (WBS) </li></ul><ul><li>Need organizational chart that shows responsibility and authority </li></ul>
  • 9. STAFFING <ul><li>Dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Competent </li></ul><ul><li>Honest </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Worker </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul>
  • 10. DIRECTING <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>-Pay </li></ul><ul><li>-Contributing to team </li></ul><ul><li>-Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>-Oral-Clear and to the point </li></ul><ul><li>-Listening- is an important part </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Work with Others </li></ul><ul><li>-Above, Below, and beside you </li></ul><ul><li>-Outside your company </li></ul>
  • 11. CONTROLLING <ul><li>Controlling is one of the most difficult tasks of management </li></ul><ul><li>There can be no control system without a baseline plan for doing the work </li></ul><ul><li>There can be no control system without good staffing with assigned responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Must rely on support personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Need reporting system that detect problems </li></ul><ul><li>Need procedure for corrective actions </li></ul>
  • 12. FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Who is going to do the work? </li></ul><ul><li>What are they going to do? </li></ul><ul><li>When will it be done? </li></ul><ul><li>How much will it cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes ask – how, where, and why </li></ul><ul><li>Always ask – what can go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Always have a contingency plan </li></ul>
  • 13. APPREHENSIONS FOR MANAGERS <ul><li>Feeling that subordinates are too inexperienced-(you train them, or provide training for them) </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling it take more time to explain the work than doing it yourself – (managers need to delegate) </li></ul><ul><li>Fear that a mistake by a subordinate would be too costly – (need control system to check their work) </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling that subordinates don’t have time for additional assignments – (need time management, separate significant few from many trivial tasks) </li></ul>
  • 14. GUIDELINES FOR ASSIGNING WORK <ul><li>Explain clearly what is expected </li></ul><ul><li>Be certain they understand what is assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Give them an opportunity to do it their way </li></ul><ul><li>Be reasonable in your expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Be accessible to answer questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce their confidence, show trust </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize and reward successful performance </li></ul><ul><li>Hold them responsible for poor work </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Expect perfection, but expect adequate output </li></ul>
  • 15. WORKING WITH PEOPLE <ul><li>Four types of people </li></ul><ul><li>-1) Those who make things happen </li></ul><ul><li>-2) Those who watch things happen </li></ul><ul><li>-3) Those who don’t know what’s happening </li></ul><ul><li>-4) Those who don’t want to know what’s happening </li></ul>
  • 16. NEED FOR DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Being decisive is a trait lacking in many people </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to be decisive (by procrastinating or vacillating) causes many things to go wrong </li></ul><ul><li>No one know what is supposed to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Work is not done because of lack of direction </li></ul><ul><li>The result is a waste of time and talent of people </li></ul><ul><li>Decisiveness is required to gain respect of others </li></ul><ul><li>Take time to deliberate, but when time for action arrives, stop thinking and get on </li></ul>
  • 17. DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Need Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Can not make good decisions unless primary objectives </li></ul><ul><li>(goals to be accomplished) are known and understood </li></ul><ul><li>You must conceptualize the end results of your decision </li></ul><ul><li>(forecast end results to see if original objective are met) </li></ul><ul><li>Once objectives are clearly defined, they must be prioritized ( separate needs from wants) </li></ul><ul><li>Once objectives are defined and prioritized, then alternatives can be analyzed </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Define who, does what, when, and how much </li></ul><ul><li>Assign responsibilities, give authority to act, follow-up </li></ul>
  • 18. GUIDELINES FOR DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Differentiate between big decisions and little problems </li></ul><ul><li>Big problem merit real decisions (requires time) </li></ul><ul><li>Little problems shouldn’t be worried over (delegate) </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on established policies when possible </li></ul><ul><li>Many decision are routine in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Consult and check with others </li></ul><ul><li>Get opinions of other who have had similar situations </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid crisis decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t decide under extreme stress (may sleep on it overnight) </li></ul><ul><li>However, many decision must be made under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Relax, get facts, forecast, then decide </li></ul>
  • 19. GUIDELINES FOR DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Don’t try to anticipate all eventualities </li></ul><ul><li>It is impossible to anticipate all eventualities </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate anticipations with low probabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t expect to be right all the time </li></ul><ul><li>There is a certain amount of risk in everything we do </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes wrong decision are made by good people </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t expect to be right all the time, just don’t expect to be totally wrong at any time </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, many decision are not totally right or wrong, instead it’s the question of the degree of rightness </li></ul>
  • 20. GUIDELINES FOR DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Cultivate decisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Indecision creates tensions in most people </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions generate stress and further indecisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid procrastination and vacillation </li></ul><ul><li>Once your decision is made – implement it </li></ul><ul><li>Direct all efforts to achieve the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Be certain everyone knows what is to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes decisions must be altered after new information becomes available </li></ul>
  • 21. MAKING BETTER DECISIONS <ul><li>Recognize your personal decision making biases </li></ul><ul><li>Involve colleagues who see the world differently from you </li></ul><ul><li>Fight the temptation to solve today’s problem with yesterday’s solution </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problem with a win – win orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit information from individuals affected by the decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your are solving the right problem </li></ul><ul><li>Consider as many solutions as possible </li></ul>
  • 22. MAKING BETTER DECISIONS <ul><li>Realize that even the best solutions may open the door to new problems </li></ul><ul><li>If you are using any data as the basis for you decision, verify the numbers </li></ul><ul><li>When you make a decision affecting others, share reasoning behind the decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Think in term of satisficing, not optimizing </li></ul><ul><li>Ask lot of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from prior decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for criticism </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Sanity </li></ul><ul><li>Dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul>CHECKS FOR DECISION MAKING
  • 24. TIME MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Time is irreplaceable and vital to the personal and professional life of everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Managers (and everyone) spend a great deal of time communicating and interacting with others </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that time spent is productive and effective </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious – for there are always more interesting and worthwhile things to do than time allowable to do them </li></ul>
  • 25. EVALUATE USE OF YOUR TIME <ul><li>Analysis of how time is spent is necessary to determine how effective your time is used </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze time spent by keeping a daily log for 2 to 3 weeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much time doing each activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who was involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was accomplished </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. COMMON TIME WASTERS <ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>E-mails </li></ul><ul><li>Unscheduled Visitors </li></ul><ul><li>Special Requests </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting too much at once </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Procrastination on decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement in routine items that other can handle </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to say “ no “ </li></ul>
  • 27. GUIDELINES FOR MANAGING TIME <ul><li>Occasionally maintain a log of how major portions of your time is spent </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule your least interesting tasks when you are at your peak in energy </li></ul><ul><li>Review your job activities that can be assigned to a subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly analyze your work to determine how and what can be combined or eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>A good manager always has the time to do the things he or she wants to do and should be doing </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>Bring your daily priorities in sync with your values and beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a memory course </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to speed read </li></ul><ul><li>Waste less time </li></ul><ul><li>Spend less time in crises </li></ul><ul><li>Spend less time in performing routine tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more time strategically </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comprehensive priority management system </li></ul>MAKE BETTER USE OF YOUR TIME Cont…
  • 29. <ul><li>Spend more time with people, less time with things. </li></ul><ul><li>Restore your energy </li></ul><ul><li>Improve your comm. skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Three times each day ask yourself, Is this the best use of my time. </li></ul><ul><li>Task time to improve the quality of your life. </li></ul><ul><li>Reserve one hour each day for your self </li></ul><ul><li>Find joy in doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Find joy in today. </li></ul>MAKE BETTER USE OF YOUR TIME
  • 30. COMMUNICATIONS <ul><li>Key words of management are: </li></ul><ul><li>- communication </li></ul><ul><li>- communication </li></ul><ul><li>- communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communication involve: </li></ul><ul><li>- Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>- Writing </li></ul><ul><li>- Listening </li></ul>Conti...
  • 31. <ul><li>Too often the “other person” does not hear or interpret the information the way we intend. </li></ul><ul><li>All communications must be clear, coherent, and to the point (don’t ramble) </li></ul><ul><li>Communications are of no value unless they are received and understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes feedback from the other party is necessary to ensure effective communications </li></ul>
  • 32. WAYS TO IMPROVE LISTENING <ul><li>Commit to improve listening </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the speaker in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Limit your talking </li></ul><ul><li>Stop worrying about what you are going to say next </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have any prejudice against the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop coming to quick conclusions about people and things </li></ul><ul><li>Become less self centered </li></ul><ul><li>Get into listening posture </li></ul><ul><li>Hold your fire </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of the speaker’s words </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor nonverbal messages </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the speak what you heard. </li></ul>
  • 33. RESOLVING DISAGREEMENTS WITH OTHERS <ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions or paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Remain calm </li></ul><ul><li>Know why are you arguing </li></ul><ul><li>Be firm </li></ul><ul><li>Be constructive </li></ul><ul><li>Remain descriptive, not judgmental (be objective not subjective) </li></ul><ul><li>Accept responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on solution </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on needs, not positions </li></ul>
  • 34. KEEPING YOURSELF UPDATED <ul><li>Set aside one hour each day to read and absorb new info </li></ul><ul><li>Select an info source that fits your needs schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Subscribe to news letters in your field </li></ul><ul><li>Read good professional journals </li></ul><ul><li>Scan the front pages of newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Join a local professional group </li></ul><ul><li>Join a book club </li></ul><ul><li>Attend meetings of professional trade associations </li></ul><ul><li>Attend seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Write articles </li></ul>
  • 35. <ul><li>Look for opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>See gain where others see only loss </li></ul><ul><li>View failure as education </li></ul><ul><li>Get past your mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an open mind </li></ul><ul><li>Increase your tolerance for risk </li></ul><ul><li>Dream </li></ul><ul><li>Share your dream </li></ul><ul><li>Remain optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Expand you knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Expand your creativity </li></ul>IMPROVE YOUR OUTLOOK & THINKING
  • 36. <ul><li>No shared vision and values </li></ul><ul><li>No strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Poor alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong style </li></ul><ul><li>Undeveloped skills </li></ul><ul><li>Low trust </li></ul><ul><li>No self-integrity </li></ul>CHRONIC PROBLEMS IN MANAGERS
  • 37. <ul><li>Be proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with end in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Put first things first </li></ul><ul><li>Think Win / Win </li></ul><ul><li>Sharpen the saw </li></ul><ul><li>Seek first to understand, then to be understood </li></ul><ul><li>Synergize. </li></ul>SEVEN GOLDEN NUGGETS FOR MANAGERS
  • 38. <ul><li>Wealth with out work </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure without conscience </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge without character </li></ul><ul><li>Business without ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Science without humility </li></ul><ul><li>Religion without sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Politics without principles </li></ul>SEVEN DEADLY SINS

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