“It’s time for black people to stop playing the separating game of geography, of where theslave ship put us down. We must concentrate on where the slave ship picked us up.” ~ Hon. John Henrik Clarke
What is race & racism?
Vocabulary• Race or Racial Group- the categorization of humans into populations or groups on the basis of various sets of heritable characteristics.• Ethnic group- a group of human beings whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage that is real or presumed (cultural, linguistic, religious, behavioral or biological traits of contrast to other groups)• Pan-ethnicity- is the grouping together and labeling of various ethnicities into one all-encompassing group. (dark skin =African-American regardless of their country of origin.
Vocabulary (continued)• Minority- a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant voting majority of the total population of a given society.• Racism- “The predication (declare; affirm; imply) of decisions & policies on considerations of race for the purpose of subordinating a racial group & maintaining control over the group”• Maafa- (aka the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is a word derived from the Swahili term for disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. The term refers to the 500 years of suffering of Africans and the African diaspora, through slavery, imperialism, colonialism, invasion, oppression, de humanization and exploitation.
Vocabulary (continued)• Bigot- One who is strongly partial to ones own group, religion, race, or politics and is intolerant of those who differ in creed, belief, or opinion.• WASP- a White Anglo-Saxon Protestant; A member of the privileged, established white upper middle class in the U.S.
What is ―Black‖? black/blæk/ –adjective 1. lacking hue and brightness; absorbing light without reflecting any of the rays composing it. 2. characterized by absence of light; enveloped in darkness: a black night. 3. (sometimes initial capital letter) a. pertaining or belonging to any of the various populations characterized by dark skin pigmentation, specifically the dark-skinned peoples of Africa, Oceania, and Australia. b. African- American 4. soiled or stained with dirt: That shirt was black within an hour. 5. gloomy; pessimistic; dismal: a black outlook. 6. deliberately; harmful; inexcusable: a black lie. 7. boding ill; sullen or hostile; threatening: black words; black looks. 8. (of coffee or tea) without milk or cream. 9. without any moral quality or goodness; evil; wicked: His black heart has concocted yet another black deed. 10. indicating censure, disgrace, or liability to punishment: a black mark on ones record.
What is being ―Black‖? (continued)black/blæk/ –adjective11. marked by disaster or misfortune: black areas of drought; Black Friday.12. wearing black or dark clothing or armor: the black prince.13. based on the grotesque, morbid, or unpleasant aspects of life: black comedy; black humor.14. (of a check mark, flag, etc.) done or written in black to indicate, as on a list, that which is undesirable, sub-standard, potentially dangerous, etc.: Pilots put a black flag next to the ten most dangerous airports.15. illegal or underground: The black economy pays no taxes.16. showing a profit; not showing any losses: the first black quarter in two years.17. deliberately false or intentionally misleading: black propaganda.18. British. boycotted, as certain goods or products by a trade union.19. (of steel) in the form in which it comes from the rolling mill or forge; unfinished.
By Definition… Is the term ―black‖ a positive or a negative way to describe the African- American Community? Explain.
Think About It!• As it is said in the clip to Malcolm X aka Denzel, “Who are you”?• What labels do you use to describe yourself?
Think About It!• If not “black”, then what? ▫ Afro/African-Arab Mixed African and genealogical Arab ancestral heritage and/or linguistically and culturally Arabized Africans. This also includes descendants of African slaves who were brought to the Arab world during the Arab slave trade. ▫ Afro/African-Latin person of at least partial African ancestry More commonly, when referring to cultural aspects of African origin within specific countries of Latin America, terms carry an Afro- prefix followed by the relevant nationality. Examples include Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilian ▫ Afro/African-Caribbean Caribbean people of full or at least partial African ancestry . ▫ Afro/African-European people with Sub-Saharan African ancestry, cultural and social heritage who were born in a European country or migrated to Europe from Africa.
Think About It! (continued)▫ Afro/African-Asian people of African ascent as well as Asian ascent and or African people living within the Asian continent▫ Afro/African-Indian/Native-American people of African ascent as well as Native American ascent, who were, or are, embedded with Native Americans, or who possess strong cultural, social and political ties to their indigenous American heritage.▫ Afro/African-Misc Caribbean Canadians African Canadians Gullah African-Australian▫ Emancipated African (EA) -or- Afro/African-American (AA) Partial Sub-Saharan African ancestry, the direct descendants of captive Africans who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present US. This term can also apply to immigrants from African, Caribbean, Central American or South American nations.▫ African Applies to all peoples with full to partial African ancestry. This includes people who live in Africa, or people who trace their ancestry to indigenous inhabitants of Africa.
What is being ―African‖ or―African-American‖?• Identity includes the adoption of personal behaviors and identification with a group of people with similar characteristics. Note that persons within an ethnic group should not be assumed to be alike• in culture, philosophy, and history• Afrocentric theory
OK….ok ok ok! • Now that we have a label in which to call ourselves, how do we “act” the part?
Cross’s Nigrescence Model• A major contribution to the understanding of the African American personality has been the Nigrescence models a.k.a. racial identity development theory• “Nigrescence” is defined as the “developmental process by which a person becomes Black, where Black is defined as a psychological connection with one’s race rather than pertaining to their skin color” The model also posits that individuals go through several stages in developing an awareness of individual and collective racial identity.
The Nigrescenceattitudes• The nigrescence attitudes include: ▫ Preencounter ▫ Encounter ▫ Immersion-emersion ▫ Internalization
Cross’s Nigrescence Model Describes Black American process of self-actualization; measures 4 themes of racial identity:1) Pre-encounter : pre-discovery of one’s racial identity ▫ attitudes are pro-white and anti-black ▫ thinks in terms of White frame of reference (devalues/denies Blackness) ▫ does not realize implications of being a Black American (sees society as “colorless” or “colorblind”)2) Encounter : significant racial incident causes the individual to explore their Black identity ▫ individual makes a conscience decision to develop a Black identity
Cross’s Nigrescence Model3) Immersion-emersion : following the encounter experience, the individual immerses himself in Black culture ▫ wears ethnic clothing ▫ black hairstyles ▫ associates only with Blacks4) Internalization : individuals become comfortable with racial identity ▫ wants to be acknowledged for being Black ▫ more aware of what being Black means ▫ recognizes and appreciates other ethnic heritages
OK….ok ok ok…again • Where are you according to cross?
Race A social concept, but biologically unsupportable!
Is race in our genes or just in our heads? Most of us can see differences in humans: skin color, eye color, hair are obvious. We, and most others in the world, tend to use these traits to categorize people. Morally, many of us understand the ramifications of our use of these categories and the harm they have brought and can bring. We need to understand the difference between what is essentially a sociological view of race rather than a biological view of race.
Activity!!! If you were walking down the street, would you identify the following people ―African American‖ YES (Left) NO (Right)
OPINIONSHow would the people who youidentified as ―‖African-American betreated in society?How would the people who youidentified as ―non-African American‖be treated? GIVE EXAMPLES!
A biological view of race:“The anatomy of a given racial group is used in comparison withthat of other racial groups to investigate how people adapt toenvironments.”It is essentially "value free."
A sociological view of race:Race is used as a means of determininghow a person should be related to ortreated, either on a personal level orunder some aspect of the law.Race is a modern idea; ancientsocieties did not divide people ofphysical features, but bylanguage, wealth, status, religion, orclass.
Early Racial ClassificationsHomer (fl. 1200 - 850 B.C.E.) Homer •Iliad and Odyssey acknowledge variability •Aethiopians: People at the eastern and western edges of the known world •Cubit-men: African (?) pygmies HerodotusHerodotus (484?-425? B.C.E.) •Historiae argues for an environmental cause of variability between human groups •Egyptians have strong skulls due to exposure •Persian skulls are brittle due to the use of felt hatsHippocrates (460 - 377 B.C.E.) •Environmental influences on human variability are noted in Volume I of Corpus Hippocraticum •Body build and temperament of different peoples are said to Hippocrates be related to their climate and life style
Early Racial ClassificationsAristotle (384-322 B.C.) Claims environmental causes of physical variation in humans Wooly hair of Aethiopians due to arid climate Aristotle Straight hair of Scythians due to moist airSt. Augustine (354-430) In De Civitate Dei Contra Paganos he says all men born everywhere, no matter how strange they appear to us, are descended from Adam, i.e., are descended from a single ancestral stock St. Augustine
Differential Worth: The BeginningsRaces are ranked on variouscriteria judged to assessintelligence or moral standardsThe rankings are used either tobolster the scala naturae orproto-evolutionary relationshipsSuch rankings are highlysubjective and loaded withpotential for ethnocentricabuse, with the highest rankalways being reserved for the raceof the person doing the ranking
Carolus Linnaeus, 1707 – 1778Viewed the task of classification as one of attempting tounderstand the natural laws of the Scala Naturae (theladder of nature)Races according to Linnaeus• Americanus: Red, choleric, erect• Europaeus: White, fickle, sanguine, blue-eyed, gentle, governed by laws• Asiaticus: Sallow, grave, dignified, avaricious, ruled byopinion• Afer: Black, choleric, obstinate, contented, regulated bycustoms• Ferus: Wild man, walks on all fours, hairy• Troglodytes: You wouldnt believe it• Monstrous: Giants, mutants
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, 1752 - 1840German Anatomy ProfessorFather of Physical AnthropologyFather of CraniologyFounder of Anthropology in GermanyOn the Natural Variety of Mankind (1775)•We owe much of our view of the races to him, but he wasprobably one of the least racist people of his time.•Advocated Monogenism•Proposed a system for classifying humans into five differentraces based on the shape of the skull•Using a skull from the Caucasus mountains as the perfectEuropean form, he claimed his four other races degeneratedfrom this group :•Caucasoid (Europeans), Mongoloid (Asians), American(Native Americans), Ethiopian (Africans), and Malayan(Southeast Asians)
Samuel George Morton, 1799 - 1851Physician from Philadelphia•Polygenist, convinced of inferiority ofAfrican populations•Measured cranial capacity (volume ofbraincase) to assess differential worth•Very careful technician, publishedextensive list of measurements ofcranial capacities
Pierre Paul Broca, 1824 - 1880Founder of French AnthropologyFirst Society of Anthropology (1859)First School of Anthropology (1876)•Instigated the study of Craniometry•Attempted to quantify differential worth•Ratio of radius to humerus: a high ratio is ape-like, hence lower worth.•Found Caucasians scored higher thanHottentots, Eskimos, and Australians•He discarded the ratio in favor of measures with whites furthest from the apes•Brain size: bigger is better •Men > Women •Eminent Men > Mediocre Men •Superior races (Caucasian) > Inferior (Other races)
Stereotypes A popular belief about specific types of individuals based on sweeping generalizations
Stereotypes What are a few common stereotypes about different minority groups?
Activity!!! Take the next 10 min to fill out the following survey
Activity!!! Watch the following Banned cartoons & pick out at least five stereotypes
OPINIONS What is the point of racism & stereotypes?
Racial Privilege• Sociologists Noël A. Cazenave and Darlene Alvarez Maddern define racism as “...a highly organized system of race-based group privilege that operates at every level of society and is held together by a sophisticated ideology of color/race supremacy. It all boils down to: • Economic Power • Political Power
White Privilege: Unpackingthe Invisible Knapsack• In 1988, Peggy McIntosh wrote this essay about the different unspoken privileges utilized by Caucasian Americans in their daily life while working on issues of feminism and male privilege…
White Privilege: Unpackingthe Invisible Knapsack• “I decided to try to work on myself at least by identifying some of the daily effects of white privilege on my life. I have chosen those conditions which I think in my case attach somewhat more to skin-color privilege than to class, religion, ethnic status, or geographical location, though of course all these other factors are intricately intertwined. As far as I can see, my African American co- workers, friends and acquaintances with whom I come into daily or frequent contact in this particular time, place and line of work cannot count on most of these conditions.”
Activity!!!1. Count off by eight and join the people with the same number.2. In you groups discuss the list complied by Peggy Macintosh & answer the following question:• Why are these issues important to adeeper understanding race basedoppression, power, privilege, andresistance?
What is race & racism?
Skin Color ProductionSkin color is due primarily to the presence of a pigment calledmelanin .Both light and dark complexioned people have this pigment.However, two forms are produced—pheomelanin, which is red toyellow in color, and eumelanin, which is dark brown to black.People with light complexioned skin mostly producepheomelanin, while those with dark colored skin mostly produceeumelanin.To a lesser extent, the color is affected by the presence of fat underthe skin and carotene, a reddish-orange pigment in the skin.
The Importance of MelaninMelanin provides many benefits to human beings.•Melanin in humans is found dispersed throughout the body, in theskin, hair, eye, adrenal gland (chiefly responsible for regulating the stressresponse through the body chemical change of corticosteroids ( which controlstress response, immune response and regulation ofinflammation, carbohydrate break down, protein break down, blood saltlevels, and behavior) and catecholamines ("fight-or-flight“hormones), including cortisol (the "stress hormone" as it is involved inresponse to stress and anxiety. It increases blood pressure and blood sugar, andreduces immune responses) and found inside the ear and the brain. It isnecessary in order for the brain and nerves to operate and the cells toreproduce.•At the core of your brain is the "locus coeruleus," a structure that is dark inpigmentation because it contains large amounts of Melanin which is essential inorder for it to operate! In fact, all the most crucial brain structures are heavilymelanized. "Brain melanin is concentrated in a region that functions as a gatefor all sensory, motor, emotional and motivational input and output" as well asa region that mediates conscious awareness
The Importance of Melanin (continued)•Freckles, which occur in people of all races, are small, concentrated areas ofincreased melanin production•Melanin provides a natural protection against the harmful effects of ultravioletrays of the sun.•Melanin is a mechanism for absorbing heat from the sun.•Melanin is a key ingredient in the DNA of the genes, and protects the DNAnucleus.•Melanin is centrally involved in controlling all mental and physical bodyactivities•It is important for sharpness of vision; melanin serves to minimize the numberof light beams that enter the eye. It also provides for the absorption of scatteredlight within the eye. In this way, pigmentation allows for more keen sight.•Melanin is abundantly present at the inception of life: a Melanin sheath coversboth the sperm and the egg.! In the human embryo, the melanocytes (skinpigment cells), the brain, and the nerve cells all originate from the same place;the neural crest.