Expert Portfolio on Television (2010) by Monika Sosnowska


Published on


The objective of this report is to provide the reader with a deeper understanding of television and its rapid integration into the fabric of our daily life. With the help of a timeline on page 11, the reader will gain insight into the evolution of television programming and technology and how both had a large impact on the North American culture.

The synopsis of 1981 examines television’s influence on a brand new generation of consumers and discusses the introduction of new HDTV technology. 1981 was also a year that saw the debut of Music Television (MTV), which completely re-shaped the global music industry by broadcasting music videos and encouraging viewers to place more emphasis on the artist’s looks than vocal talent.

The move of the ownership from government hands to corporate network created a greater need for regulation by Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Through the federal Broadcasting Act, CRTC has continued to regulate television in Canada and encourage Canadian programming geared at the multicultural nature of the nation. The Broadcasting Act also ensures that Canadian broadcasting remains in the hands of Canadians and reflects Canadian point of view.

The preliminary overview of television’s place in our society will encourage the reader’s deeper understanding of this popular medium.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Expert Portfolio on Television (2010) by Monika Sosnowska

  1. 1. Expert Portfolio on Television October 2010Findings compiled by:Monika Sosnowska
  2. 2. (Television), its the menace that everyoneloves to hate but cant seem to live without. ~ Paddy Chayevsky
  3. 3. ABSTRACTThe objective of this report is to provide the reader with a deeperunderstanding of television and its rapid integration into thefabric of our daily life. With the help of a timeline on page 11, thereader will gain insight into the evolution of televisionprogramming and technology and how both had a large impacton the North American culture.The synopsis of 1981 examines television’s influence on a brandnew generation of consumers and discusses the introduction ofnew HDTV technology. 1981 was also a year that saw the debutof Music Television (MTV), which completely re-shaped theglobal music industry by broadcasting music videos andencouraging viewers to place more emphasis on the artist’s looksthan vocal talent.The move of the ownership from government hands to corporatenetwork created a greater need for regulation by CanadianRadio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Throughthe federal Broadcasting Act, CRTC has continued to regulatetelevision in Canada and encourage Canadian programminggeared at the multicultural nature of the nation. TheBroadcasting Act also ensures that Canadian broadcastingremains in the hands of Canadians and reflects Canadian point ofview.The preliminary overview of television’s place in our society willencourage the reader’s deeper understanding of this popularmedium.
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSTELEVISION IN 1981 ............................................................................................................................. 7TELEVISION AND OWNERSHIP ......................................................................................................... 8A PERSONAL VIEW ON TELEVISION ............................................................................................... 9TELEVISION TIMELINE .................................................................................................................... 11REGULATION OF TELEVISION IN CANADA ................................................................................. 26AN OVERVIEW OF THE BROADCASTING ACT ............................................................................. 27REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 29
  5. 5. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010TELEVISION IN 1981A DEEPER LOOK INTO POPULAR CULTURE AND TECHNOLOGYT he year 1981 was a grand year in television history and paved the way for evolution of television to become what it is today. Television of 1981 helped to define a new generation which watched, instead of listened to music, and which had an open access to technology during their youth. Television technology and broadcast encountered many firstin 1981; the first live teletext subtitles for the hard-of-hearing were used during the inauguration speech of PresidentRonald Regan and the initial live flag-to-flag NASCAR race was televised by ESPN. However, most notable is the firstdemonstrated use of High-Definition Television (HDTV) by NHK. The technology itself did not catch on until digital cablemade HDTV transmission simpler and quicker, but it is used widely today and has created new standards for televisionviewing experience.Music Television, known to most as MTV, also debuted that year. MTV defined the generation and has had a large impacton the music industry and the North American culture in general. Prior to its debut, music could only be heard but MTVcreated a demand for music videos which provided visuals to the music. A new generation of music consumers stemmedwho were more concerned with the physical looks than vocal sound of the artists. The 1981 also introduced the public tonew shows such as Dynasty, Smurfs, Entertainment Tonight, and the miniseries, the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy.One of the most watched episodes of 1981 was that of General Hospital, where two characters, Luke and Laura wed. Thewedding was the highest watched hour in daytime television history although the wedding of Price Charles of Wales andLady Diana Spencer, that same year, was the largest live wedding watched, with over 750 million viewers across the globe.It is easy to see why 1981 was an important year in television and how it helped to shape the way we use technology andentertainment today. It has opened many doors for the new generation and introduced new technologies never beforeviewed as possible that impacted and continue to impact television today. 7|P a g e
  6. 6. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION]TELEVISION AND OWNERSHIPUNDERSTANDING THE HISTORICAL OWNERSHIP OF CANADIAN TELEVISIONC anadian television, in its initial stages, was owned and operated mostly by the Canadian government. Although Canada’s first television station, VE9EC, was a joint venture between Montreal’s radio station CKAC and the newspaper La Presse, it wasn’t until 1949 that the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) began developingCanadian programming. CBC was created by the federal government to oversee the regulation of Canadian programming.In 1952 television broadcasting finally began in Canada, with CBC being the first Canadian network. Prior to creation ofCBC, Canadians wanting to watch television were forced to point their television antennas towards the United States, withhopes to pick up American television signals.Private television was developed in Canada in 1955 and, by that time, CBC was accessible to 60 percent of Canadians. TheFowler Commission, established by Robert Fowler in 1957, addressed the issues of financing Canadian broadcastingsystem and recommended that CBC should cease to be a broadcasting regulator. Fowler also recommended that Canadiantelevision should remain in the hand of Canadians, with no more than 20 percent interest of any Canadian televisionstation being owned by foreign individuals or corporations. A new regulatory body, the Board of Broadcast Governors(BBG), took over the regulatory duties in 1958. By 1960s, BBG began to invite private television stations to apply tobecome Canadian networks.In 1968, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission was developed to take over the work of BBG.The CRTC, under the Broadcasting Act, created policies and regulated both private and public networks. To provide morediversity in programming and less dependence on government-ran television stations, it encouraged the development ofprivate networks. The 60s and 70s saw a rapid rise of privately owned networks such as Chum Ltd (1968), Roger’s Media(late 1960s), and Astral Media (1971). Overtime these larger corporations merged with smaller, less profitable networksand created television stations that are owned by a small number of corporations.In 2010, aside from the federally owned CBC, the television networks are owned by a small number of major players withdiversified mix of television stations. These large players include Astral Media, Shaw Communications, CTVglobalmedia,Rogers Media, Quebecor, and Shaw; with Corus and Cogeco remaining small players in the television broadcasting.
  7. 7. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010A PERSONAL VIEW ON TELEVISIONAN INTERVIEW WITH CLAYTON SMITHThis interview took place on Sunday, October 17, 2010. The main goal behind the interview was to see thecorrelation between childhood viewing patterns and the use of television in adults.Monika Sosnowska: Can you tell me your earliest memory of watching TV?Clayton Smith: (pause) Probably watching Transformers and GI Joe.MS: And when was this?CS: During the early 80s.MS: And how old were you?CS: I was five years old in 1981.MS: Did you watch TV with your family? Was television part of family time in the evening or before school?CS: In the evening, when the news came on. Usually with my step-dad.MS: Were your parents at home often when you watched television?CS: (pause) Not all the time. I mean when I got off school, my mom was sometimes out or usually out in the garden.MS: To you think television was used as a babysitter in your household? Perhaps to keep you occupied?CS: (pause) Not that I can recall.MS: Um, as a teen did you have unlimited access to television viewing?CS: Yes.MS: How often did you actually watch TV?CS: Every day, after wor [sic], I mean after school, I’d watch couple hours.MS: And in the morning, did you watch the morning cartoons?CS: No, only on Saturday. When I was young, not when I was in high school.MS: Did you spend more time outside, with your peers, than watching TV?CS: (pause) No.MS: No? So you watched TV more?CS: It was a habit to watch TV after school.MS: And what were you favourite TV shows as a teen?CS: (pause) Oh I don’t know. When I was a young teen, 90210.MS: OKCS: And Melrose Place.MS: (laugh). And what about cartoons? Did you have a favourite cartoon?CS: When I was in great eight I watched…what did I watch? Power Rangers I watched, at the very beginning. And I startedgetting older that changed. I used to watch Much Music a lot.MS: OKCS: When it was good. Now it just like MTV crap. 9|P a g e
  8. 8. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION]MS: What about your viewing habits today? How much TV do you think you watch on a weekly basis?CS: (pause) Maybe seven days a week, I watch maybe 15 hours of TV.MS: Do feel that you read more than you watch TV?CS: No, I don’t read more than watch TV, no.MS: What kind of television shows or movies do you enjoy watching?CS: (pause) I like watching action movies. And dramas as well. Pretty much anything that entertains me.MS: When do you usually watch television?CS: Well now, before work. I never used to. Once in a while I used to watch CNN when I was a young lad.MS: Do you spend more time on the internet than watching TV?CS: No.MS: What about listening to radio?CS: Oh yeah.MS: how much time do you think you spend listening to radio?CS: Well the radio, minimum eight hours a day.MS: do you watch movies or TV shows on the internet?CS: No.MS: Do you think you watch more or less television than you did five years ago?CS: I watch less now than I did before.MS: Why do you think that is?CS: Well the quality is not as good.MS: Why do you think the quality is lower now?CS: Because of the reality shows.MS: Thank you for your timeCS: No problem.
  9. 9. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010 TELEVISION TIMELINE A CHRONOLOGICAL LOOK AT TELEVISION THROUGH THE HISTORY T his timeline provided much information about the history of television and included some specific examples that were not found in other timelines and further information about the different genres of television shows and their original broadcast date. It also presents a more entertaining look into the content available to the audiences through the ages and does not focus exclusively on television technology. Although the timeline does contain mostly American content, it is nonetheless very relevant to Canadian television culture. Additional information was added from other timelines that reflected a Canadian point of view. These additions are marked by a maple leaf. Likewise, some content not relevant to this portfolio was removed. The timeline was formatted for esthetic reasons. The History of Film, Television & Video by: High-Tech Productions1872 - 1877 A series of photographs can be viewed by stroboscopic disc. 1884 George Eastman invents flexible photographic film. 1887 Thomas Edison patents motion picture camera. 1897 Development of the Cathode Ray Tube by Ferdinand Braun. 1907 Use of cathode ray tube to produce television images. 1923 Patent for the iconoscope, the forerunner of the picture tube.Early 1930s RCA conducts black and white broadcasting experiments. 1931 The first Canadian television station, VE9EC, goes on the air in Montreal. VE9EC is owned jointly by radio station CKAC and the newspaper, La Presse. 1936 First television broadcast made available in London. 1938 Initial proposal for color TV broadcast made by George Valensi. 1945 There were fewer than 7,000 working TV sets in the country and only nine stations on the air; three in New York, two each in Chicago and Los Angeles, and one each in Philadelphia and Schenectady, N.Y. RCA that same month holds its first public demonstration of a new TV camera offering a sharper image than those then in use. Near the end of October, Gimbels Department Store in Philadelphia holds the first large-scale TV demonstration. More than 25,000 people come over three weeks for a chance to watch NBC programs from New York and local shows sent out by Philcos Philadelphia station. 11 | P a g e
  10. 10. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION]1946 The Blue Network, part of NBC, officially becomes the ABC network. A 1941 FCC ruling required RCA to divest itself of one of its two networks; NBC Blue was sold in 1943 to Edward Noble for $8 million, and becomes ABC in 1945. NBC and Gillette stage whats billed as the first "television sports extravaganza" -- the Joe Louis-Billy Conn heavyweight fight at Yankee Stadium -- in June. The fight is a viewing success with an estimated audience of 150,000 watching 5,000 sets. For every TV set tuned into the fight, there are, on average, 30 people watching, many seeing an event on TV for the first time. In October, the Television Broadcasters Association declares "television is ready to proceed on an expanded basis," and that the new industry is "well on the way to becoming one of the most important in the nation."1947 "Howdy Doody," a childrens series, premieres live on NBC in December as a one-hour Saturday program. Symbolic of the first generation nurtured on TV, the show remains on the air until 1960. In May, live theater equivalent to the Broadway stage comes to TV on a regular, commercially sponsored basis with the premiere of "Kraft Television Theatre." In March, FCC postpones final decisions on Color TV but reaffirms a go-ahead on existing standards. NBC debuts "Meet the Press," a kind of made-for-TV news conference. It goes on to become the oldest series on network TV.1948 "The Ed Sullivan Show" (originally "Toast of the Town") makes its debut in June. Sponsored by Lincoln-Mercury, the show becomes one of TVs longest-running and most successful variety series. The show airs on CBS into 1971, spurring the advancement of scores of show business careers. Advertisers accept the medium: Throughout the year, 933 sponsors buy TV time, a rise of 515% over 1947. By the fall, FCC has issued 108 licenses for new stations, with hundreds more applications pending across the nation. The earliest cable systems are born in remote areas of Pennsylvania and Oregon. Known then as Community Antenna Television, its function was simply to bring TV signals into communities where off-air reception was either non-existent or poor because of interfering mountains or distance.1949 By January, number of TV stations grows to 98 in 58 market areas. A special broadcast in January inaugurates East-Midwest TV linkage. Included in the broadcast is a one-hour sampler with the networks displaying their best: Arthur Godfrey for CBS, Ted Steele for DuPont, Milton Berle and Harry Richman for NBC, and for ABC a mystery show called "Stand By for Crime." The event moves Chicago Tribune to report: "The end of dull sustaining filler on television screens appears to be in sight." FCC adopts the Fairness Doctrine, making broadcasters responsible for seeking out and presenting all sides of an issue when covering controversy. (Earlier in the Communications Act of 1934 broadcasters were required to give "equal air time" to candidates running in elections.) U.S. Dept. of Commerce confirms TVs selling power when it reports in May: "Televisions combination of moving pictures, sound and immediacy produces an impact that extends television as an advertising medium into the realm of personal sales solicitation."
  11. 11. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010 Betty Furness starts pitching refrigerators and appliances in TV spots for Westinghouse, launching a relationship that lasts more than 11 years and makes her one of the first stars created for commercial TV.1950 In January, Arthur Godfrey and Faye Emerson are named most pleasing personalities in Looks TV awards show on CBS. National sponsors exit radio for TV at record rates, moving Variety to describe the exodus as "the greatest exhibition of mass hysteria in biz annals."1951 "Omnibus," one of commercial TVs most honored cultural series, debuts. Hosted by Alistair Cooke, the program takes in $5.5 million in advertising revenues during five years on the air, against $8.5 million in costs. "I Love Lucy," a half-hour filmed TV sitcom, is born. The show, unlike the live TV productions typical of the time, ranks No. 1 in the nation for four of its first six full seasons. It is sponsored by Philip Morris. CBS broadcasts the first color program on June 21, but only 25 receivers can accommodate mechanical color. Viewers of 12 million existing sets see only a blank screen. "Hallmark Hall of Fame" series launches in December with "Amahl and the Night Visitors."1952 National Association of Radio & Television Broadcasters ratifies a new Television Code establishing guidelines for content and addressing the concerns of social critics. Nearly half the code is devoted to advertising. In response to protests about program content, a House subcommittee investigates "offensive" and "immoral" TV programs and touches on wide range of topics -- from beer spots to dramas depicting suicide. Bob Hope takes his comedy from radio to TV when "The Bob Hope Show" debuts in October. Bordens Elsie the Cow beats out actor Van Johnson and U.S. Sen. Robert Taft in recognition polls as one of Americas most familiar faces. NBCs "Today" show, first and longest-running early-morning network show, bows with host Dave Garroway and chimpanzee sidekick J. Fred Muggs. 13 | P a g e
  12. 12. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] By years end, the number of TV households grows to 20 million, up 33% from previous year. U.S. advertisers spend a record $288 million on TV time, an increase of 38.8% from 1951. Canadian television (CBC) is launched. Canadas first urban cablevision facility opens in London, Ontario.1953 Color broadcasting officially arrives in the U.S. on Dec. 17, when FCC approves modified version of an RCA system.1954 "Captain Kangaroo" the first network kids show, begins on CBS. The Hamms bear is introduced in a TV spot that initially runs as a sequel to a 1953 Hamms commercial that featured beavers beating on tom-toms. The first color commercial televised in a local show was commissioned in March by Castro Decorators, New York, in a contract with WNBT. It was first telecast on Aug. 6.1954 NBC launches "The Tonight Show," featuring comedian Steve Allen, on Sept. 27. For nearly four decades -- until CBS "Late Show With David Letterman" enters the scene in 1993 -- the show dominates late night. In April, groundwork is laid for the Television Advertising Bureau. For the first time, television is the leading medium for national advertising.1955 Immensely popular daytime radio show "Queen For A Day" shifts to TV in January. Between radio and TV, the show had a run of nearly 20 years, although widely criticized as an exploitation of human misery, wrapped in commercial plugs. At the peak of popularity, NBC increased the shows length from 30 to 45 minutes to gain time to sell at the premium ad rate of $4,000 per minute. Future U.S. President Ronald Reagan becomes host of "General Electric Theater," long-running anthology series on CBS (1953-61) in which many top Hollywood film stars appeared. One of NBCs perennial specials -- "Peter Pan" with Mary Martin and Cyril Richard -- first telecast in March as a live production. Its billed as the first network presentation of a full Broadway production. Videotape later makes it possible to present the show annually for several years. The classic Western series "Gunsmoke" begins its 20-year run on CBS. "The $64,000 Question," sponsored by Revlon, premieres in June on CBS, igniting a U.S. game show craze. First TV broadcast of the opening of Parliament. CBC television is now accessible to 66% of Canadians. A Royal Commission on broadcasting, chaired by Robert Fowler, is created.1956 Videotape is introduced by Ampex Corp. at a CBS-TV affiliates session. Most TV shows at the time are produced by the kinescope process. The 1939 movie "Wizard of Oz" debuts in November on CBSs "Ford Star Jubilee." After more than three decades of exposure, the feature is considered one of the most successful single programs in TV history and the longest continually sponsored theatrical movie on TV.1957 Variety reports in May that during a typical week, viewers encounter 420 commercials totaling 5 hours, 8 minutes.
  13. 13. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010 By August, for the first time, more countries worldwide allow TV advertising than forbid it. Host Jack Paar revives NBC-TVs "Tonight" show beginning on July 29. In an October report in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Meyer Naide identifies "television legs," blood clots that result from watching TV too long. CBSs "Ed Sullivan" show is the years most-watched network program, with a 50.4 average audience rating. The Fowler Commission recommends that the CBC give up its role as a broadcasting regulator. It also recommends that upcoming legislation on broadcasting prevent non-Canadians from owning more than 20% interest in any Canadian radio or TV station.1958 There are 525 cable TV systems serving 450,000 subscribers in the U.S. In February, CBS takes out a two- page ad in TV Guide in which it warns the public: "Free television as we know it cannot survive alongside pay television." Advertising Age reports "videotape seems to be catching on like wildfire." By October, 61 TV stations in the U.S. use tape. By the end of the TV season, there are 22 network quiz shows; 18% of NBCs programming alone consists of quizzes. In August, contestant Herbert Stempel charges "Twenty-One" is rigged, triggering a congressional investigation. In December, Edward R. Murrow writes in TV Guide that viewers must recognize "television in the main is being used to distract, delude, amuse and insulate us." By years end, ad expenditures in radio and TV cross the $2 billion mark. The first TV program is broadcast live from Nova Scotia to British Columbia. The CBCs microwave network is the longest television network in the world. A new regulatory body, the Board of Broadcast Governors (BBG), takes over the CBC’s regulatory duties. The BBG regulates Canadian broadcasting, including the CBC and private broadcasters. The BBG is given the power to establish regulations requiring stations to promote Canadian programming.1959 The cartoon ad character Mister Magoo becomes the nearsighted spokesman for General Electric bulbs. NBCs Sunday night hit "Bonanza" makes its debut. It becomes the highest- rated program of the 1960s and is on the air 14 years.1960 DuPont Co. begins a two-year sponsorship of the "June Allyson Show," a series of dramatic plays. The first of four "great debates" between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon is broadcast on Sept. 26 across the country, breaking new ground in presidential campaigning. The most popular shows of the year include "Gunsmoke" and "Wagon Train." Audience share figures regularly exceed 50% for many of the most popular entries in prime time. The BBG invites private TV stations to apply to become networks. 15 | P a g e
  14. 14. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] 1961 In search of added profit, ABC stretches the station break between programs to 40 seconds from 30. The other networks follow. FCC Chairman Newton Minow delivers a May 9 speech in which he denounces U.S. TV as a "vast wasteland," calling for heightened federal regulation of the medium. The same day, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey calls U.S. TV "the greatest single achievement in communication that anybody or any area of the world has ever known ." The CTV network (Canadian Television Network) is launched. The CBC submits recommendations on satellite telecommunications in Canada. The transatlantic telephone system is officially launched with a call from Queen Elizabeth II to Prime Minister John Diefenbaker.1962 The Alouette satellite is launched. Canada becomes the third country in the world to have a satellite in orbit. 1963 The New York chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality persuades Lever Bros. to air a network commercial featuring an African-American, a spot for Wisk detergent that shows a black boy and white boy at play. On Aug. 28, Dr. Martin Luther King delivers his "I have a dream" speech as millions watch on TV. On Nov. 22, President Kennedy is shot by a sniper in downtown Dallas, and TV coverage of the assassination and the funeral grip the nation and the world for four days. Shortly thereafter, Jack Ruby shoots accused presidential assassin Lee Harvey Oswald on an NBC live broadcast as the latter is being transported by law officials. TV surpasses newspapers as an information source for the first time; a November Roper poll indicates 36% of Americans find TV a more reliable source, compared with the 24% who favor print. Instant replay adds a new dimension to televised sports when its featured in a telecast of an Army-Navy football game. In 1964, it becomes a standard technique and goes on to become controversial in the NFL. The government decides that the private sector should develop Canadas aerospace industry (known as the ISIS satellite program). 1964 Negative political TV advertising is born with the "Daisy" spot for Lyndon Johnsons presidential candidacy, in which a mushroom cloud suggests GOP candidate Barry Goldwater would not hesitate to use nuclear warfare. Debate over the airing of cigarette commercials heats up after the U.S. Surgeon General issues a report finding smoking a health hazard FCC issues its first cable regulation: Operators are required to black out programming that comes in from distant markets and duplicates a local market stations own programming, if the local station demands it. There are about 1 million homes wired for cable in the U.S. at the time. 73 million viewers tune in to the appearance on the "Ed Sullivan Show" of the British pop group, the Beatles.
  15. 15. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010 CBS is the champion of the "Big 3" networks -- demanding $50,000 from advertisers for a prime-time minute, while ABC brings in $45,000 and NBC brings in $41,000 for the same time. WOR-TV, New York, is the first station to air a program comprised only of commercials. The special features spots selected as Clio award winners at an earlier American Television Commercials Festival. It runs uninterrupted (without paid messages) until the end of the telecast, when two paid commercials are aired. A new committee on broadcasting is formed, the Fowler Committee. The Committee urges the government to define its expectations for broadcasting and set objectives for both public and private broadcasting in Canada. The Committee also recommends replacing the BBG with a new regulatory and licensing agency.1965 Color TV booms as NBC leads the way and begins to use the phrase "The Full Color Network". By years end, 96% of NBCs nighttime schedule is broadcast in color, along with all major programs, sports events and specials. The Canadian government announces its policy on colour television.1966 A live-action representation of the comic strip Batman is brought to TV and achieves instant success with its star, Adam West. A New York Times Magazine article reports: "TV is not an art form or a cultural channel; it is an advertising medium ... it seems a bit churlish and unAmerican of people who watch television to complain that their shows are lousy. They are not supposed to be any good. They are supposed to make money." The government defines its broadcasting policy: Canadians should maintain control over new communications technologies in order to preserve and strengthen Canadas social and economic structures. Colour TV broadcasts begin in Canada.1967 An opinion survey sponsored by National Association of Broadcasters shows a high level of public dissatisfaction with TV commercials and programs. Sixty-three percent of those surveyed would prefer TV without commercials. The Chapman Report recommends that Canadian research on space technology focus on communications and remote sensing. The Report also suggests that Canada offer this expertise to the international market. This results in the creation of the Department of Communications and Telesat Canada in 1969.1968 Manufacturers churn out 11.4 million new TV sets, up from the 5.7 million receivers made in 1960. NAB Code Authority increases scrutiny of violence in TV programming after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. and U.S. Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, a presidential candidate. Spending for TV in presidential campaigns increases to $27 million, from $10 million in 1960. A white paper on satellite telecommunications is released. The first televised debate by leaders of political parties in Canada (a joint CBC/CTV production) takes place. The Broadcasting Act is passed. The Act does the following: confirms CBCs position as a national broadcaster; strengthens restrictions on foreign ownership, requires that Canadian programming be created by mainly Canadian talent; confirms the idea that the broadcasting system can strengthen Canadas cultural, social and economic structures; creates the Canadian Radio-television Commission (CRTC), a new regulatory agency that becomes the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) in 19761969 Public Broadcasting Service begins, and in November launches "Sesame Street," one of the most influential achievements in childrens TV. 17 | P a g e
  16. 16. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] On July 20, astronaut Neil Armstrong takes mankinds first step on the moon as millions of U.S. viewers watch the historic event live on network TV. The U.S. Supreme Court applies the Fairness Doctrine to cigarettes -- granting anti-smoking forces "equal time" on the air to reply to tobacco commercials. That same year, the FCC issues a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to ban cigarette ads on TV and radio. As Congress debates the issue, tobacco companies and certain members of the Senate hold discussions in which cigarette advertisers, in order to stave off controls on the sale of cigarettes, agree to stop advertising them on the air.1970 FCC enacts the Financial Interest Syndication Rules (effective 1971), prohibiting the three major networks from owning and controlling the rebroadcast of prime-time shows. The rules ended controversial policies of withholding or delaying network hits from independent stations that could then program them against network news and prime-time fare. In the same action, FCC enacts the Prime Time Access Rule, limiting the networks use of peak viewing time to three hours per night. The rule effectively shaved off 30 minutes of prime-time programming from the networks each night and returned it to the local stations in the top 50 markets. Action for Childrens Television petitions the FCC to eliminate all commercials from childrens TV programs, citing a variety of shortcomings in terms of quality and regulation of advertising. The petition fueled existing debate within the industry about advertising and children. Coca-Colas "Id Like to Teach the World to Sing" commercial saturates the radio and broadcast airwaves, becoming an instant hit. Coca-Cola goes on to sell a million records featuring a non-commercial version of the popular jingle.1971 The transition from 60-seconds to 30-seconds as the standard length for commercials takes hold. The change began in the 1960s with the controversial practice of "piggybacking," or putting messages for two related products from one company into the same one-minute commercial. The networks cast aside concerns about corporate relationships and began selling 30-second units. As of Jan. 2, the 1970 congressional ban on radio and TV cigarette advertising takes effect, stripping the broadcast business of about $220 million in advertising. The landmark series "All In The Family" debuts on CBS as one of the first sitcoms to contain realistic characters, mature themes and frank dialog. The show becomes the highest-rated TV program of the decade, with a 23.1 average rating. There were 212 episodes done during its nine seasons on the air. "The Ed Sullivan Show" comes to an end after 23 seasons on CBS. Mr. Sullivan, the master of ceremonies for the show, dies in 1974.1972 In response to growing concern over TVs effect on children, NAB and the networks agree to reduce commercial time in childrens weekend fare from 16 minutes an hour to 12 minutes an hour (effective Jan. 1, 1973). Revisions in the code do away with "tie-ins," the mention of products in a program context, and with the use of program hosts or cartoon characters as the commercial pitchman.1973 Variety reports in April that by a margin of 5-1, Americans judge TV commercials as "a fair price to pay for being able to view the programs." The Senate Watergate Hearings begin May 17. Together ABC, CBS and NBC offer almost 300 hours of
  17. 17. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010 rotated coverage, estimated to have cost a combined total of $10 million in lost ad revenues and air time.1974 NAB adds additional curbs on ads to children, with a new policy limiting non-program material in weekend childrens fare to 10 minutes hourly, effective Jan .1, 1975.1975 The Robert McNeil Report (later the McNeil-Lehrer Report) introduces a new news format to public broadcasting with the support of AT&T Co. KNTV, San Jose, Calif., becomes the first U.S. station to run a TV commercial for Trojan condoms. The spot ran despite a NAB code that banned commercials for contraceptives. A study by the Council on Children, Media, and Merchandising reveals that approximately 50% of ads in childrens programming from 1965 to 1975 were for food, primarily sugared cereals, cookies, candies, and soft drinks; 30% were for toys. Time Inc. initiates the concept of linking satellite programming to cable systems with the launch of Home Box Office. On Sept. 30, the heavyweight boxing championship bout between Joe Frazier and Muhammad Ali is broadcast from Manila. Family viewing time is incorporated into the NAB TV code. It was decided that the time before 9 p.m. was supposed to be devoted to all members of the household. This results in a marked drop in violence on the air in "family time" during the 1975-76 season. In November 1976, a federal court overturns the policy, deeming it a violation of free speech. "Gunsmoke" comes to an end after a 20 year run on CBS. The show finishes among the top 10 programs 13 times.1976 Ted Turners WTBS, Atlanta, becomes a "superstation" to viewers in much of the U.S. via cable TV1977 More than 75% of TV-equipped homes are able to receive color on one or more sets. ABC airs the first episode of its 26-hour miniseries "Roots" Jan. 23. The Jan. 30 installment becomes the third most-watched TV program in history, earning a 51% rating. A Mississippi minister, Rev. Donald Wildmon, and his grass-roots protest group, American Family Association, organize a national "Turn Off TV Week" in February. Gross TV advertising revenues this year rise to $7.5 billion -- 20% of all U.S. advertising1978 Viacoms Showtime cable network launched in March. Warner Cable establishes an interactive/videotex system called QUBE Ohio. Viewers were able to participate in public opinion polls by punching buttons their homes. Warner ended the experiment in 1984.1979 A TV Guide poll in May indicates 44% of Americans are unhappy with what they find on their TV screens and 49% are watching TV less than they did a few years earlier. ESPN, a total sports network, makes its debut on cable. It becomes the ESPN largest and most successful basic cable channel, carried by virtually every cable system, and reaches more than 57 million households. 19 | P a g e
  18. 18. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION]1980 "Who Shot J.R?" a November episode of CBS hit TV show "Dallas," reveals the identity of the attacker of J.R. Ewing (played by Larry Hagman) and breaks records by a drawing a 53.3 rating and 76 share. Ted Turners Cable News Network is born, lining up TVs two major sponsors, Procter & Gamble Co. and General Foods. In March, Walter Cronkite steps down after 19 years of anchoring the CBS evening news and is replaced by Dan Rather. Nielsen produces its first Cassandra ratings report for syndicated programming.1981 MTV: Music Television makes its debut in August.1982 Alberto-Culver Co. experiments with "split 30" commercials. The test is not received warmly by the networks, which accept the commercials at the insistence of the advertiser but seek restrictions on use. Federal Judge Harold Greene outlaws NABs TV code -- created for industry self-regulation -- in "U.S. vs. NAB." Court held the code violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by artificially increasing cost. Home Shopping Network is launched.1983 The final episode of "M*A*S*H" draws the largest audience in TV history. More than 125 million homes tuned in. The going rate for a :30 on the 2 1/2-hour finale was $450,000. On Nov. 11, ABC broadcasts "The Day After," a two-hour made-for-TV film about thermonuclear war between the U.S. and Soviet Union, Because of its controversial nature, the movie appears with few advertisers but demolished the ratings of other TV programs that night.1984 During the third quarter of the Super Bowl, Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh computer with a 60- second Orwellian epic commercial called "1984," created by Chiat/Day. The spot, which cost $400,000 to produce and $500,000 to broadcast in its single national paid airing, launches a new computer technology, turns the Super Bowl into a major ad event and begins an era of advertising as news. Superstar Michael Jackson makes a highly publicized Pepsi-Cola commercial, and during a shoot his hair accidentally catches fire, requiring surgery to his scalp. The campaign, is considered the forerunner of big-budget celebrity ads. With the deregulation of the cable industry, Tele-Communications Inc. aggressively begins buying cable systems nationwide. By the end of the decade, TCI will have spent nearly $3 billion for 150 cable companies. First specialty services MuchMusic and TSN are approved. Later Telelatino and Chinavision are licensed.1985 In March, Capital Cities Communications buys ABC for $3.5 billion -- proving network TV no longer remains an untouchable institution.
  19. 19. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 20101986 In January, the anonymous "Herb" becomes the object of a national, $40 million manhunt by Burger King in what becomes the most elaborate advertising flop of the decade. The effort is dropped after four months. NBCs "The Cosby Show" breaks existing records for a network series by commanding $350,000 to $400,000 for 30 seconds of commercial time. CBS undergoes a management shift in September when its board ousts Thomas H. Wyman, chairman-CEO. Replacing Mr. Wyman as acting chief executive is investor Laurence A. Tisch. The 1985-86 season marks the 60th anniversary of NBC and the first time it ever wins the prime-time ratings race. NBC hikes rates for early buys of 1986-87 season time, but ABC and CBS cut rates for first time. ABC, CBS and NBC have trouble selling commercial time for sports programs for the first time. Rates for the 1986 NFL season drop 15% from 1985. California Raisin Advisory Board introduces a hit commercial featuring dancing, singing, sneaker-clad raisins via new animation technology called Claymation. It was done by Claymation creator Will Vinton. Spanish-language network Telemundo Group is launched by Reliance Capital Group.1987 In January, San Francisco station KRON-TV becomes the first major market TV station in the U.S. to air a condom commercial. In April, 20th Century Fox owner Rupert Murdoch launches Fox Broadcasting Co. Playtex International makes history in May when networks begin airing its commercials showing women wearing bras. In August, five veteran admen die in a tragic rafting accident in Canadian rapids. Among those killed when their raft overturned in the Chilko River was Robert Goldstein, VP-advertising for Procter & Gamble Co., and Richard OReilly, who headed the Partnership for a Drug-Free America. A.C. Nielsen Co.s electronically advanced "people meter" is introduced to replace its 30-year-old diary system. "Wheel of Fortune," the highest-rated show in syndicated programming, draws an asking price of $95,000 for a 30-second spot, The show generates revenues of $400,000 an episode. More than 50% of U.S. households are now wired for cable.1988 Barter syndication revenues total $875 million, up from $50 million in 1980. Widespread use of videocassette recorders zap away at the TV viewing audience. At the start of the year, almost 60% of TV households have a VCR -- up from 4% in 1982.1989 Pay-per-view becomes a familiar part of cable TV service, reaching about one-fifth of all wired households. The broadcast networks reach an all-time low of 55% of the total TV audience in July. Nissan begins its new age "Rocks and Trees" campaign by Hill, Holliday, Connors, Cosmopulos, grabbing 21 | P a g e
  20. 20. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] attention by never showing the product -- its luxury Infiniti. Instead, the spots feature nature scenes. BBDO pulls Pepsi commercials featuring pop singer Madonna after just one airing due to controversy over her "Like a Prayer" video. Time Inc. and Warner Communications announce a $14 billion merger. Foxs TV network earns $33 million in profits with just three nights of programming. Its animated sitcom, "The Simpsons" is considered a genuine hit.1990 The Childrens Television Act takes effect limiting the amount of commercialization in childrens TV programming (including cable) and requiring operators to carry at least some programming designed to meet childrens educational and informational needs.1991 The broadcast TV networks and cables CNN provide extensive coverage of the Persian Gulf War, which begins in January. But advertisers take a backseat; Procter & Gamble Co., Sears, Roebuck & Co., Pizza Hut and major airlines all refuse to air spots during news coverage of the war. NBC, for one, reports losses of $5 million as a result of canceled advertising and the cost of coverage. Coca-Cola Co. promises its sponsorship of the 92 Olympics telecasts will be its biggest ever ever. Pepsi runs spots starring basketball great Magic Johnson as a spokesman, before the Olympics start. In June, the Clio Awards, one of advertisings best-known award shows, turns into a farce when poor financial management and organization forces finalists to rush onto the stage to claim statuettes. In October, the broadcast networks preempt afternoon soap operas and much of their evening and weekend schedules to cover the Senate Judiciary Committees investigation of Anita Hills accusations of sexual harassment against Supreme Court justice nominee Clarence Thomas. More than 40 million U.S. households watch the two-day televised hearings; the networks lose an estimated $15 million to $20 million in ad revenue after pulling most commercials in favor of continuous coverage. Courtroom Television Network, owned jointly by Cablevision, NBC, Time Warner and American Lawyer Media, is established, providing 24-hour live and taped coverage of trials in 41 states Parliament amends the Broadcasting Act.1992 Infomercials become a hot ad medium. National Infomercial Marketing Association estimates infomercials generate sales of $750 million, more than double their revenues of 1988. Johnny Carson, the king of late-night TV, retires as the longtime host of NBCs "Tonight Show." Jay Leno is named as his replacement. In August, NBC and cable partner Cablevision fail to meet projected goals for consumer purchase of their unusual Olympic Triplecast pay-per-view alternative for comprehensive Olympic viewing. The venture ends up with losses of more than $100 million.1993 By the start of year, 98% of U.S. households own at least one TV set, 64% have two or more sets.
  21. 21. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010 After 11 years at NBC, David Letterman announces hes jumping to CBS. His new "Late Show With David Letterman" begins in August and, quickly moving to No. 1 in latenight ratings and bumping "The Tonight Show" from its longtime lead. In February, NBC issues a humiliating retraction and apology to General Motors Corp. on "Dateline NBC" for a staged on-camera explosion during a report on alleged safety problems with GM trucks. During the controversy, GM temporarily shifts its ad budget to the networks entertainment and sports programming and threatens to cancel its $160 million-plus budget for NBC. The final episode of NBCs 11-year hit sitcom "Cheers" in May attracts 93.1 million viewers, with a 45.5 Nielsen rating. In a first-of-its-kind arrangement, Visa International signs a $3 million deal to become the official credit card of Atlanta, the host city of the 1996 Summer Olympics. Time Warner announces plans to launch a full-service interactive network in Orlando, Fla. "NYPD Blue" is an instant ratings hit on ABCs new fall prime-time line-up after attracting pre-debut attention for nudity and rough language. The hourlong police drama is the only new series to crack Nielsen Media Researchs Top 20 in virtually every major adult demographic group. In October, the deliberately tasteless "Beavis and Butt-head" MTV animated series, the top-rated show on the music network, is attacked for allegedly inspiring a 5-year-old to start a fatal fire. In response, MTV agrees to run the show in a later time spot and the writers agree not to use references to fires in the future. Seattles Bon Marche department store gives new meaning to subliminal advertsing with a spot for Frango chocolates. The commercial consists of four frames (each costing $945) and lasts less than a second. Running during "Evening Magazine," it cost the retailer $3,780 for airtime. Fox snares broadcast rights to National Football Leagues NFC Conference from CBS for $1.58 billion over four years.1994 The Winter Olympics sets ratings records, becoming the most-watched event in TV history with 204 million U.S. viewers, or 83% of the country, watching at least some of CBSs coverage. Ratings are boosted by the controversy surrounding the womens figure skating competition; prior to the Olympics, U.S. figure skater Tonya Harding was involved in an attack on teammate Nancy Kerrigan. Speaking before the American Association of Advertising Agencies in May. P&G CEO Ed Artzt warns agency executives they risk losing control over clients and media unless they step up their participation in shaping the future of the new-media landscape. The world TV premiere of "Gettysburg" on TNT in June lives up to its epic billing by attracting the largest viewership ever for a movie on basic cable: 23 million people watch all or portions of the two-part special. The World Cup audience from 52 televised games reaches up to 33 billion people. Univision, the Spanish- language network, anticipates $24 million in ad revenue. ABC gets a 4.7 rating and 15 share for the 10 games prior to the final. 23 | P a g e
  22. 22. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] Football legend and actor O.J. Simpson is arrested as the primary suspect in the brutal murders of his former wife Nicole Brown-Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman. The incident throws the media into overdrive, as 95 million viewers watch at least some part of Mr. Simpsons freeway chase in June. National Hockey League players delay start of season with strike announcement. Fox Network purchases NHL TV rights in September for $155 million. More than 43 million people tune in to at least some part of the highly touted "Baseball" documentary miniseries on PBS in September, giving it the largest cumulative audience in the networks 25-year history. A Major League Baseball strike derails the Baseball Network, a fledgling joint venture between NBC, ABC and the league. The venture loses $95 million in advertising and nearly $500 million in national and local spending.1995 The first licences for direct-to-home satellite service (DTH) are granted to Bell ExpressVu and Power DirecTv. 1996 Digital satellite dishes that are only 18 inches in diameter hit the market. They become the biggest selling electronic item in history next to the VCR.1999 The CRTC licenses the worlds first service devoted to aboriginal peoples for nationwide distribution, the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN). 2000 The year of the Digital Disc, aka DVD. After years of speculation, the DVD finally takes hold and DVD movies are as common as those on VHS tape. The CRTC sets out a licensing structure for digital specialty and pay television services. 2001 DVDs becomes a major player in the home entertainment field. Most movie studios now release their movies on DVD, which is starting to catch up with VHS tape sales. The CRTC reports to the Governor-in-Council on French-language broadcasting services in communities where it is not the language spoken and understood by the majority of people. 2004 DVDs Out Sells VHS tapes., Disc sales go through the roof as DVDs surpass VHS as the most common format for home entertainment. The price of DVDs has also fallen as its popularity increases. Blank DVDs can now be purchased for as little as 25 cents for a 4X disc. Just a year ago, prices were as high as $15.00 for a single 1X disc. Home DVD recorders are now as inexpensive as a good quality VCR. For more than 25 years, VHS dominated the world home entertainment market after winning a challenge from Sonys Betamax in the early 1980s. By next year, some retailers are actually going to stop selling VHS VCRs as the DVD format now dominates the home video market. DVDs also have the advantage of containing "Extras" that movie studios add to encourage sales of their discs. 2005 Flat screen TVs & HDTV are the "In" thing of the year. Almost all televisions sold are now flat LCD and Plasma screens. Some are only a few inches thick. Large screen Plasma and LCD TVs are also well within the reach of the average consumer. A 42" Plasma screen retails for as low as $1400.00 with prices getting lower as the year progresses. Hi Definition TVs, (known as HDTV) are also the big seller for 2005. A 42" Plasma HDTV usually retails for $4500.00 - $7000.00. Some new 42" TVs even sell for as low as $999.00. By 2006 all television stations will switch to a HiDef broadcast. 2006 Flat screen TVs are larger and less expensive. They are finding their way into more & more homes as prices continue to drop and screen size gets larger. LCD TVs are now outselling plasma screens and projected to be the most popular kind of TVs in the world by 2009.
  23. 23. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010 The CRTC reports to the Governor-in-Council on the future of the Canadian broadcasting system. The Government of Canada directs the CRTC to rely on market forces as much as possible to achieve the policy objectives of the Telecommunications Act. Television programming delivered through cell phones and other mobile devices is exempted from regulation.2007 Organic LCD TVs (OLCD) are Introduced and promises to revolutionize flat panel displays with their thin size. Time Running Out on Analog TVs as the FCC deadline approaches. By 2009 all broadcasts are to be in Hi-def digital format. The CRTC sets August 31, 2011 as the date by which TV stations will broadcast only digital signals.2008 Government Gives Out Set-top Converter Coupons to people that dont have cable or satellite TV. Once the change over to all digital, anyone receiving TV from an antenna will need a converter in order to watch the new digital signals on older (non-digital) TVs. The CRTC submits a report to the Governor-in-Council on the Canadian Television Fund.2009 Hi-def is everywhere as all manufacturers release high definition TVs and monitors. Almost all sets now have the capability of displaying high resolution images. 1080 is considered the standard in the industry as the must have number of lines of resolution. HDMI digital output connects it all. It is the one cable that can now connect a TV or monitor to a hi-def cable box, satellite receiver and/or Blu-ray player. It delivers true 1080 picture quality as well as stereo audio all through one multi-pin connector. Now you dont have to have multiple wires running to your TV as it is all done through one HDMI cable. Internet Widgets on Televisions as a way of integrating the web with TV. All you need is an internet enabled set or set-top box and you can watch certain Internet sites directly on your screen without having a computer hooked up. "NetFlix", "YouTube" and other providers stream the info to the set and allow you to watch Internet programming at the touch of your televisions remote control. Sony, Panasonic, Samsung and others make sets with Internet Widgets built in.2010 3D movies and 3D television sets arrive. It started with James Camerons blockbuster "Avatar". 3D has been around for decades, but this time it seems as though it is here to stay. Numerous movies have come out and all TV manufactures have released high definition 3D sets. Instead of those funky red/green cardboard glasses you now wear a modern hi-tech LCD pair that lets you watch the new sets with incredible clarity. Never before has 3D been so vivid. The images truly appear to jump off of the screen. 25 | P a g e
  24. 24. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION]REGULATION OF TELEVISION IN CANADAWHO CONTROLS WHAT WE WATCH?T he federal Broadcasting Act, established under Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), outlines Canada’s broadcasting regulations and policies. CRTC, through the Broadcasting Act, develops and implements all broadcasting policies designed to serve and reflect Canadian values, including the multiculturalnature of the country.Under the Act, Canadian broadcasting is to be controlled and owned by Canadians to ensure the maintenance andenhancement of national identity. The Act ensures that the programming promotes the cultural and ethnic nature of thenation and that the Aboriginal people of Canada have access to Aboriginal broadcasts that are readily available. One of itsmandates is to provide equal access to all forms of broadcasting to the minority groups as well as encourage programmingin both English and French languages.The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), in addition to alternative and corporate broadcasting services, is controlledby the Act and has to abide by its mandate. This ensures that all networks and programs provide content that reflectsCanadian values, point of view and cultural sovereignty. Furthermore, the Act encourages Canadian content and enforcesstrict rules to ensure that programming reflects the interests, ages, and tastes of women, men and children and reflectsCanadian attitudes in general.CRTC welcomes the public’s feedback about any programming or broadcasters that fail to follow the Broadcasting Act.
  25. 25. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010 OVERVIEW OF THE BROADCASTING ACTThe full document can be accessed through the Department of Justice Canada website ( BROADCASTING POLICY FOR CANADADeclaration3. (1) It is hereby declared as the broadcasting policy for Canada that(a) the Canadian broadcasting system shall be effectively owned and controlled by Canadians;(b) the Canadian broadcasting system, operating primarily in the English and French languages and comprising public, private andcommunity elements, makes use of radio frequencies that are public property and provides, through its programming, a public serviceessential to the maintenance and enhancement of national identity and cultural sovereignty;(c) English and French language broadcasting, while sharing common aspects, operate under different conditions and may havedifferent requirements;(d) the Canadian broadcasting system should (i) serve to safeguard, enrich and strengthen the cultural, political, social and economic fabric of Canada, (ii) encourage the development of Canadian expression by providing a wide range of programming that reflects Canadian attitudes, opinions, ideas, values and artistic creativity, by displaying Canadian talent in entertainment programming and by offering information and analysis concerning Canada and other countries from a Canadian point of view, (iii) through its programming and the employment opportunities arising out of its operations, serve the needs and interests, and reflect the circumstances and aspirations, of Canadian men, women and children, including equal rights, the linguistic duality and multicultural and multiracial nature of Canadian society and the special place of aboriginal peoples within that society, and (iv) be readily adaptable to scientific and technological change;(e) each element of the Canadian broadcasting system shall contribute in an appropriate manner to the creation and presentation ofCanadian programming;(f) each broadcasting undertaking shall make maximum use, and in no case less than predominant use, of Canadian creative and otherresources in the creation and presentation of programming, unless the nature of the service provided by the undertaking, such asspecialized content or format or the use of languages other than French and English, renders that use impracticable, in which case theundertaking shall make the greatest practicable use of those resources;(g) the programming originated by broadcasting undertakings should be of high standard;(h) all persons who are licensed to carry on broadcasting undertakings have a responsibility for the programs they broadcast;(i) the programming provided by the Canadian broadcasting system should (i) be varied and comprehensive, providing a balance of information, enlightenment and entertainment for men, women and children of all ages, interests and tastes, (ii) be drawn from local, regional, national and international sources, (iii) include educational and community programs, (iv) provide a reasonable opportunity for the public to be exposed to the expression of differing views on matters of public concern, and (v) include a significant contribution from the Canadian independent production sector;(j) educational programming, particularly where provided through the facilities of an independent educational authority, is an integralpart of the Canadian broadcasting system;(k) a range of broadcasting services in English and in French shall be extended to all Canadians as resources become available;(l) the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, as the national public broadcaster, should provide radio and television services incorporatinga wide range of programming that informs, enlightens and entertains;(m) the programming provided by the Corporation should 27 | P a g e
  26. 26. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] (i) be predominantly and distinctively Canadian, (ii) reflect Canada and its regions to national and regional audiences, while serving the special needs of those regions, (iii) actively contribute to the flow and exchange of cultural expression, (iv) be in English and in French, reflecting the different needs and circumstances of each official language community, including the particular needs and circumstances of English and French linguistic minorities, (v) strive to be of equivalent quality in English and in French, (vi) contribute to shared national consciousness and identity, (vii) be made available throughout Canada by the most appropriate and efficient means and as resources become available for the purpose, and (viii) reflect the multicultural and multiracial nature of Canada;(n) where any conflict arises between the objectives of the Corporation set out in paragraphs (l) and (m) and the interests of any otherbroadcasting undertaking of the Canadian broadcasting system, it shall be resolved in the public interest, and where the public interestwould be equally served by resolving the conflict in favour of either, it shall be resolved in favour of the objectives set out in paragraphs(l) and (m);(o) programming that reflects the aboriginal cultures of Canada should be provided within the Canadian broadcasting system asresources become available for the purpose;(p) programming accessible by disabled persons should be provided within the Canadian broadcasting system as resources becomeavailable for the purpose;(q) without limiting any obligation of a broadcasting undertaking to provide the programming contemplated by paragraph (i),alternative television programming services in English and in French should be provided where necessary to ensure that the full range ofprogramming contemplated by that paragraph is made available through the Canadian broadcasting system;(r) the programming provided by alternative television programming services should (i) be innovative and be complementary to the programming provided for mass audiences, (ii) cater to tastes and interests not adequately provided for by the programming provided for mass audiences, and include programming devoted to culture and the arts, (iii) reflect Canada’s regions and multicultural nature, (iv) as far as possible, be acquired rather than produced by those services, and (v) be made available throughout Canada by the most cost-efficient means;(s) private networks and programming undertakings should, to an extent consistent with the financial and other resources available tothem, (i) contribute significantly to the creation and presentation of Canadian programming, and (ii) be responsive to the evolving demands of the public; and(t) distribution undertakings (i) should give priority to the carriage of Canadian programming services and, in particular, to the carriage of local Canadian stations, (ii) should provide efficient delivery of programming at affordable rates, using the most effective technologies available at reasonable cost, (iii) should, where programming services are supplied to them by broadcasting undertakings pursuant to contractual arrangements, provide reasonable terms for the carriage, packaging and retailing of those programming services, and (iv) may, where the Commission considers it appropriate, originate programming, including local programming, on such terms as are conducive to the achievement of the objectives of the broadcasting policy set out in this subsection, and in particular provide access for underserved linguistic and cultural minority communities.Further declaration(2) It is further declared that the Canadian broadcasting system constitutes a single system and that the objectives of the broadcastingpolicy set out in subsection (1) can best be achieved by providing for the regulation and supervision of the Canadian broadcasting systemby a single independent public authority.
  27. 27. [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION] October 26, 2010ReferencesFront MatterQuotations about television. (2010). Retrieved October 20, 2010, from[Untitled photograph of a test pattern]. Retrieved October22, 2010, from 1, 1981 SynopsisFisher, D. (2010). Chronomedia. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from heart 1981. BBC. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from want my MTV. (2010). Retrieved October 22, 2010, from This Day -- July 29, 1981. BBC. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from - Year 1981 From The People History. (2004). Retrieved October 15, 2010, from, A. (2006). MTV continues to influence Americas youth. Critograph. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from, B. (2006). Luke and Laura: Still the Ultimate TV Wedding. ABC NEWS. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from[Untitled image of the Hitchhiker’s Guide To the Galaxy ]. Retrieved October22, 2010, from[Untitled photograph of Luke and Laura from General Hospital]. Retrieved October22, 2010, from[Untitled photograph of MTV]. Retrieved October22, 2010, from[Untitled image of Papa Smurf]. Retrieved October22, 2010, from[Untitled photograph of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer]. Retrieved October22, 2010, from[Untitled image of Smurfette]. Retrieved October22, 2010, from 2, Television OwnershipCanadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. (2008). CRTC Origins. Retrieved October 10, 2010, from Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. (2008). Highlights about Canadian Television. Retrieved October 9,2010, from 29 | P a g e
  28. 28. October 26, 2010 [EXPERT PORTFOLIO - TELEVISION]CBLT-TV, Toronto, Canadian Broadcasting Corp.. (2010). Retrieved October 24, 2010, from convergence, acquisitions and sales in Canada. (2010). CBC News. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from, N. (n.d.). Broadcasting, Royal Commission. In Canadian Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from 4, Television TimelineUsed sources:Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. (2008). CRTC Origins. Retrieved October 10, 2010, from History of Film, Television & Video. (2010). Retrieved October 10, 2010, from sources:Canadian Television Timeline. (2008). Marketing Magazine. Retrieved October 10, 2010, from Invention Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2010, from 5, Regulation and PolicyDepartment of Justice Canada. (2010). Broadcasting Act. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from Page[Untitled image of television sets through ages]. Retrieved October15, 2010, from