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Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)
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Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 - 2012)

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  • 1. Report on Income Earning Gap between Men and Women (2006 – 2012) By: Monika E. Sosnowska February 1, 2013
  • 2. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 2 Overview conclusion without critically analyzing the existing statistical data, thus having a biased The research conducted for this report outlook on the topic at hand. It’s a well-knownconsisted of most recent Statistics Canada fact that over many generations in the 20thpublications, Statistics Canada CANSIM century, on average, a woman earneddatabase tables, peer-review sources and substantially less than a man, in part due to thenewspaper articles. All of the sources were social structure of the Canadian society.obtained electronically; the majority located However, is the income gap still evident in thethrough Statistics Canada webpage or through twenty-first century? Furthermore, do variablesthe SFU Library (online). All consulted sources such as education, labour choices and familyare listed in the reference list, whereas the responsibilities correlate in any way to thesources that were employed to support the differences in earnings between the sexes? Thisfindings are referred to and cited throughout the report will critically analyze the existingreport. Appendices referred to in the body of the scientific data in order to provide an answer toreport follow the reference list and are positioned these two questions.according to the citation order in the text for easyreference. Discussion of Major Statistics Canada Publications Introduction Statistics Canada publications were an The objective of this report is to provide important component in comprehension andthe reader with an improved understanding of the support of the statistics found in the CANSIMearning gap between men and women in Canada. database and Summary Tables referred toThe research draws on numerous sources, throughout the text. Although a number ofincluding Statistics Canada publications, publications contributed to an overallCANSIM database, peer-reviewed and understanding of the topic, not all werenewspaper articles and critically analyzes income employed. Job-education match and mismatch:trends observed over the last six years. The Wage differential, by Jennifer Yuen, foranalysis should demonstrate either narrowed or instance, supported the information found inexpanded gender wage gap and consider the other newer Statistics Canada publications, thuscorrelation between numerous variables wasn’t referred to in the body of the report.including education, family characteristics and The three publications referred to, closelylabour choices. This preliminary report will supported and simplified the statisticalallow readers to better comprehend the trends information. Why has the gender wage gapobserved over the last few years and encourage narrowed? by Marie Drolet provided a depth offurther critical analysis of social trends in information that closely related to this report andCanada. was a significant contributor and supporter of the tables found in the appendices. Drolet discussed Research Question the growth of women’s wages, education and age The earning gap between men and contributors and possible factors behind the finalwomen is a well-known topic amongst outcomes. Xuelin Zhang’s Earnings of womenCanadians, who often establish their own with and without children utilized statisticalFebruary 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 3. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 3information to prove that women with children percentage of women in the lower incomeearn substantially less, especially women who brackets declined whilst the percentage of menhave three or more children. The report earning above $35,000 declined (Appendix Asimplified the CANSIM data by utilizing charts Table 3).and providing a simplified breakdown of the An indicator that women are earningnumbers. Unionization by Sharanjit Uppal, more is their increased representation among thealthough not directly related to gender gap top 1 percent of tax filers in Canada. Accordingdiscussion, did examine recent union to Beltrame (2013), 21 per cent of women weremembership trends of men and women, among the wealthiest, an increase of 10consequently providing a positive correlation percentage points between 1982 and 2010. Morebetween job choices and income for both men recently, women saw an increase inand women. Collectively, these publications representation from 20.3 to 20.9 per centprovided a larger comprehension of the statistics between 2008 and 2010. In contrast, theand the topic itself and thus, significantly percentage of men decreased from 79.7 to 79.1simplified the data that was generated from (see Appendix A Table 5)Statistics Canada website. In regards to labour characteristics, overall participation in labour force slightly Findings declined between 2008 and 2010. Male participation declined by 3.9 percentage points According to Cool (2008), in 2008 whereas women saw a decline of 2.9 percentagewomen employed full-year full-time (FYFT) on points (Appendix B Table 1). A closeraverage earned 71% of their male counterparts comparison between Appendix B Table 1 andincome. Appendix A Table 1 shows a further 2.5 Table 2, which refer to same variables but inpercentage point decrease in gender income gap different years, shows that labour forcebetween 2008 and 2010. Actually, between 2001 participation declined 2.5 percentage points forand 2010 men experienced a slower wage men and 1.9 percentage points for womenincrease compared to women (Fortin et al., between 2010 and 2012. Women’s participation2012). Figures show that during that time the in FYFT careers has seen a steady increaseaverage wage for women increased by 12.4 per between 2006 and 2010. As seen in Appendix Bcent whereas it increased a modest 2.65 per cent Table 3, in 2006, men outnumbered women byfor men (see Appendix A Table 2). The data in 1,475,000 in the FYFT category but years 2006Table 2 indicates that the gender wage gap is to 2010 showed a decrease of 310,000 malegradually decreasing. Appendix A Table 3 participants and an increase of 117,000 indemonstrates the trends in income generation for women participants. By 2010 men outnumberedboth sexes between 2006 and 2010. Women and women by 1,057,000, a decrease of about 28.3men were similarly represented in incomes per cent from the 2006 figures. Furthermore, thebelow $59,999, and while men outnumbered estimated amount of FYFT workers decreasedwomen in the $60,000 and above income both for men and women between 2008 andbracket, between 2008 and 2010 the 2009, which could reflect the loss of jobs duringrepresentation of women in higher incomes the economic downturn of 2008, but the numberincreased by half a percentage point whereas the of women working FYFT has since recovered,representation of men decreased. Recently, theFebruary 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 4. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 4the opposite is true for men (Appendix B Table Career choices may contribute to the3). narrowing gender gap. Conventionally, women According to Cool (2008), in 2008 36.5 were more likely to earn an income in lower-per cent of women, compared to 24.1 per cent of paying retail or administrative jobs (Cool, 2008)men completed university education. Appendix than higher-paying manufacturing andC Table 1 demonstrates that when equally construction sectors chosen by men (Drolet,educated, men are more likely than women to be 2011). This trend started to change as women areemployed; however the gap narrows with the increasingly seeking higher-paying careers inattainment of education. When comparing education and health (Drolet, 2011). Appendix Deducation with employment between men and Table 1 breaks down the employment by sectorwomen ages 25 to 44, the group who completed for men and women, and shows that in 2012,some secondary education saw a significant women had a higher representation in service-difference in employment numbers. In that producing sectors such as educational services,group, three-quarters of men were employed, in health care and social assistance, whereas mencomparison to just over a half of women. Men largely outnumbered women in goods producingand women in the same age group who sector, especially in construction andcompleted high school were slightly closer in manufacturing. Cool (2008) declares thatemployment numbers, with 84.5 per cent of men unionized workers on average earn more thanand 68.6 per cent of women employed. With other non-unionized employees. Many of thethose who completed post-secondary sectors that predominantly employ women arecertification, diploma or bachelor’s degree the unionized, including education and health andemployment gap was in single digits and finally, thus, women’s average salaries may increase. Inwas very minimal between men and women who contrast, according to Cool (2008), Canadaattained higher university education. Therefore recently saw a reduction of unionized jobs inas women continue to pursue university manufacturing. According to Uppal (2011), ineducation, they are more likely to be employed at 2010 more women than men were in unionizeda similar rate to men. Furthermore, education jobs, 30.8 and 28.2 per cent respectively.attainment studies indicate that the gender Between 2000 and 2008, unionization ratesincome gap also narrows with educated continued to fall for men but remained steady forindividuals (Cool, 2008). This trend is observed women. Thus, the prominence of women inin Appendix C Table 2 which illustrates that as unionized jobs could be positively correlatedwomen become more educated, the income gap with lessening the earning gap between men andbetween men and women decreases. Because women.women in 2008 continued to outnumber men in According to Zhang (2009), mothers withpursue of education (Drolet, 2011), if the higher three or more children make 20 per cent less thaneducation can be positively correlated to higher childless women. Many mothers continue toincome and if the trend of more women than men balance their work and home life and pursue jobsattaining higher education, then gender that permit them more flexibility (Cool, 2008).employment and income gap may decline further Appendix E Table 1 shows that women were, inover the upcoming decades. fact, more likely than men to work part-time in order to care for children. Of all part-timeFebruary 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 5. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 5working women, 34.1 per cent stated that the Statistics Canada tables were employed toreason for their lower working hours is due to comprehend the correlations associated with thischild rearing responsibilities. Only 2.1 per cent trend. It can be stated that women’s educationof men assert the same. According to Toronto- positively correlated with lowering wage gap, asDominion Bank, the differences in income does a choice of career, especially if thebetween men and women is largely tied to workplace is represented by a union. Familymotherhood (Grant, 2010). The fact that many characteristics correlate negatively with incomewomen limit their working hours to take care of and wage gap between men and women,children would contribute to the overall gender especially larger families with three or moreincome gap as men are more likely to work full- children. The negative correlation in this casetime than women and thus earn larger incomes. could be attributed to the number of hours a woman spends at work as mothers are more Conclusion likely than fathers to work part-time. Overall, over the last few years, women saw a significant The statistical research conducted found decrease in the gender wage gap.that the gender income gap in Canada continuedto decrease between 2006 and 2012. SeveralFebruary 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 6. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 6 ReferencesBeltrame, J. (2013, January 28). Canada’s richest 1% rake in one-tenth of country’s income. CTV News. Retrieved from http://www.ctvnews.ca/business/despite-recession-canada-s-rich-still-far-ahead- of-the-99-per-cent-statscan-1.1132337Canada’s richest 1% getting richer. (2013, January 28). CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/story/2013/01/28/business-tax-high-income.htmlCool J. (2008, October 24). Wage Gap Between Women and Men. Library of Parliament. Parliamentary Information and Research Service. PRB 08-05E. Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2010-30-e.pdfhtmDrolet, Marie. (2011). Why has the gender wage gap narrowed. Perspectives on Labour and Income. Vol. 23, no. 1. Spring. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-X. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2011001/pdf/11394-eng.pdfFang, T., Heywood, J. S. (2010, March 1). Immigration, Ethnic Wage Differentials and Output Pay in Canada. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 48: 109–130. doi: 10.1111/j.1467- 8543.2009.00740.x. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467- 8543.2009.00740.x/pdfFortin, N.M., Green, D.A., Lemieux, T., Milligan, K., and Riddell, W.C. (2012, May). Canadian inequality: Recent developments and policy options. Canadian Public Policy, 8, 121-145. doi:10.3138/cpp.38.2.121. Retrieved from http://utpjournals.metapress.com/content /pw6v54766127788l/fulltext.pdfFrenette, M., Coulombe, S. (2007, June). Has Higher Education among Young Women Substantially Reduced the Gender Gap in Employment and Earnings?. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11F0019MIE, no. 301. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m200 7301-eng.pdfGrant, T. (2010, October 12). Canada lags in gender gap ranking. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/time-to-lead/canada-lags-in-gender-gap- ranking/article1214786/Grant, T. (2012, October 25). Canada slips in gender equality ranking. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1114948216?accountid=13800Marshall, K. (2011, July 12). Generational change in paid and unpaid work. Canadian Social Trends, no. 92, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11-008-X. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11- 008-x/2011002/article/11520-eng.pdfMarshall, K. (2012). Paid and unpaid work over three generations. Perspectives on Labour and Income, vol. 24, no. 1. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE. Retrieved from http://www.stat can.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2012001/article/11612-eng.pdfFebruary 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 7. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 7Statistics Canada. (2010). Why has the gender wage gap narrowed? (chart). Labour Market Activity Survey, 1988 to 1990; Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, 1993 to 1996; Labour Force Survey, 1998 to 2008. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2011001/charts-graphiques/11394/cg00d-eng.htmStatistics Canada. (2010). Why has the gender wage gap narrowed? (table). Labour Market Activity Survey, 1988 to 1990; Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, 1993 to 1996; Labour Force Survey, 1998 to 2008. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2011001/tables-tableaux/11394/tbl001-eng.htmStatistics Canada. (2012, June 18). Average earnings by sex and work pattern (table). Summary Tables. Retrieved January 29, 2013, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum- som/l01/cst01/labor01a-eng.htmStatistics Canada. (2012, June 18). Estimated numbers of earners by sex (2006 to 2010) (table). Summary Tables. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum- som/l01/cst01/labor56a-eng.htmStatistics Canada. (2012, June 18). Table 202-0101 Distribution of earnings, by sex, 2010 Constant Dollars, Annual (table). CANSIM (database). Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2020101&paSer=&pattern= &stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csidStatistics Canada. (2012, June 18). Table 202-0102 Average female and male earnings, and female-to- male earnings ratio, by work activity, 2010 Constant Dollars, Annual (table). CANSIM (database). Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang =eng&retrLang=eng&id=2020102&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=- 1&tabMode=dataTable&csidStatistics Canada. (2012, June 18). Table 202-0104 Female-to-male earnings ratios, by selected characteristics, 2010 constant dollars, Annual (table).CANSIM (database). Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2020104&paSe r=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csidStatistics Canada. (2012, June 27). Table 111-0011 Family characteristics, by family type, family composition and characteristics of parents, Annual (table). CANSIM (database). Retrieved January 28, 2013 from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id =1110011&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csidStatistics Canada. (2012 June, 27). Table 111-0018 Family characteristics, labour characteristics, by sex and age group, Annual (table). CANSIM (database). Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1110018&paSer=&pattern= &stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csidStatistics Canada. (2012, June 27). Table 111-0021 Family characteristics, husband-wife families, by wifes contribution to husband-wife employment income, Annual (table). CANSIM (database).February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 8. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 8 Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang =eng&id=1110021&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csidStatistics Canada. (2013, January 4). Employment by industry and sex (table). Summary Tables. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum- som/l01/cst01/labor10b-eng.htmStatistics Canada. (2013, January 4). Labour force characteristics by age and sex (table). Summary Tables. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum- som/l01/cst01/labor20b-eng.htmStatistics Canada. (2013, January 4). People employed, by educational attainment (table). Summary Tables. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum- som/l01/cst01/labor62-eng.htmStatistics Canada. (2013, January 4). Reasons for part-time work by sex and age group (table). Summary Tables. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum- som/l01/cst01/labor63b-eng.htmStatistics Canada. (2013, January 28). Table 204-0001 High income trends of tax filers in Canada, provinces, territories and census metropolitan areas (CMA), national thresholds, Annual (table).CANSIM (database). Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www5.stat can.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2040001&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1 =1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csidTurcotte, Martin. (2011, August 24). Intergenerational education mobility: University completion in relation to parents’ education level. Canadian Social Trends. No. 92. March. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11-008-XWE. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008- x/2011002/article/11536-eng.pdfUppal, Sharanjit. (2011, October, 26). Unionization 2011. Perspectives on Labour and Income. Autumn 2011, vol. 23, no. 4. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2011004/article/11579-eng.pdfYuen, Jennifer. (2010, April). Job–education match and mismatch: Wage differentials. Perspectives on Labour and Income. Vol. 11, no. 4. April. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2010104/pdf/11149-eng.pdfZhang, Xuelin. (2009, March). Earnings of women with and without children. Perspectives on Labour and Income. Vol. 10, no. 3. March. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2009103/pdf/10823-eng.pdfFebruary 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 9. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 9 APPENDIX ATable 1Average female and male earnings, and female-to-male earnings ratio, by work activity,2010 constant dollars Earnings Work activity 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Median earnings, females (dollars) All earners 22,400A 23,000A 23,200A 23,700A 23,900A Full-year full-time 38,100A 38,500A 39,400A 40,700A 40,900A workers Other workers 9,800B 10,000B 10,200B 10,000B 10,400BMedian earnings, males (dollars) All earners 35,400A 35,900A 37,000A 35,100A 35,000A Full-year full-time 50,500A 51,900A 51,800A 52,000A 52,700A workers Other workers 10,800B 10,800B 11,700B 11,500B 11,500BFemale-to-male median earnings All earners 63.3A 64.1A 62.8B 67.6B 68.2Bratio (percent) Full-year full-time 75.5A 74.2A 76.0A 78.2A 77.6A workers Other workers 90.5B 92.1C 87.5C 86.7C 89.9C Earnings Work activity 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Average earnings, females All earners 29,600A 30,400A 30,800A 31,600A 31,700A(dollars) Full-year full-time 44,100 A 44,900 A 45,500 A 47,300 A 47,300A workers Other workers 15,200A 15,800A 15,500A 15,400A 15,700BAverage earnings, males (dollars) All earners 45,800A 46,500A 47,900A 46,100A 46,500A Full-year full-time 61,300A 63,100A 64,000A 63,500A 64,200A workers Other workers 19,700B 19,800B 20,500B 20,200B 20,100BFemale-to-male average earnings All earners 64.7A 65.5B 64.3A 68.6A 68.1Aratio (percent) Full-year full-time 71.9B 71.2B 71.1B 74.4B 73.6B workers Other workers 77.1B 79.6B 75.7B 76.4B 78.2C Source: Statistics Canada. Table 202-0102February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 10. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 10Table 2Average earnings by sex and work pattern All earners Women Men Earnings ratio $ constant 2010 %2001 28,200 45,300 62.12002 28,500 45,400 62.82003 28,100 44,700 62.92004 28,500 44,900 63.52005 29,200 45,600 64.02006 29,600 45,800 64.72007 30,400 46,500 65.52008 30,800 47,900 64.32009 31,600 46,100 68.62010 31,700 46,500 68.1Note: Data before 1996 are drawn from Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) and data since 1996 are takenfrom the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). The surveys use different definitions, and as aresult the number of people working full-year full-time in the SLID is smaller than in the SCF. Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0102February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 11. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 11Table 3Distribution of earnings, by sex, 2010 constant dollars Sex Earnings group 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Males Median earnings (dollars) 35,400A 35,900A 37,000A 35,100A 35,000A Median total income (dollars) 41,000A 41,200A 41,800A 40,900A 41,500A Number of all earners (x 1,000) 10,005A 10,169A 10,277A 10,228A 10,353A Median earnings of full-year full- 50,500A 51,900A 51,800A 52,000A 52,700A time workers (dollars) Number of full-year full-time 5,258A 5,329A 5,517A 5,065A 4,957A workers (x 1,000) Percentage under $5,000 12.7B 12.3B 11.6B 12.9B 13.2B $5,000 to $9,999 (percent) 7.9B 8.0B 7.5B 7.6B 7.5B $10,000 to $14,999 (percent) 6.6B 6.5B 6.5B 7.0B 7.1C $15,000 to $19,999 (percent) 5.8B 5.7C 5.3C 6.2B 5.9C $20,000 to $24,999 (percent) 5.3C 5.3B 5.5C 5.5C 5.7C $25,000 to $29,999 (percent) 5.5C 5.7B 5.3C 5.3C 5.0C $30,000 to $34,999 (percent) 5.7B 5.5C 5.7C 5.4C 5.4C $35,000 to $39,999 (percent) 5.3B 5.6B 5.6C 5.4C 5.2C $40,000 to $44,999 (percent) 5.5B 5.1B 5.4C 4.8C 4.8C $45,000 to $49,999 (percent) 4.7C 4.6C 4.5C 4.7C 4.3C $50,000 to $59,999 (percent) 8.0B 8.5B 8.6B 8.1B 8.2B $60,000 and over (percent) 26.9A 27.2A 28.3A 27.2A 27.8AFemales Median earnings (dollars) 22,400A 23,000A 23,200A 23,700A 23,900A Median total income (dollars) 28,700A 29,400A 29,800A 30,700A 30,800A Number of all earners (x 1,000) 8,832A 9,061A 9,176A 9,223A 9,340A Median earnings of full-year full- 38,100A 38,500A 39,400A 40,700A 40,900A time workers (dollars) Number of full-year full-time 3,783A 3,914A 4,043A 3,824A 3,900A workers (x 1,000) Percentage under $5,000 16.5B 15.8B 15.4B 15.9B 15.7B $5,000 to $9,999 (percent) 12.0B 11.7B 11.8B 11.3B 11.0B $10,000 to $14,999 (percent) 9.5B 10.0B 9.6B 9.6B 9.9B $15,000 to $19,999 (percent) 8.3B 8.1B 8.1B 7.5B 7.8B $20,000 to $24,999 (percent) 7.5B 7.2B 7.4B 7.3B 7.3B $25,000 to $29,999 (percent) 6.4B 7.1C 6.6B 6.1C 6.6B $30,000 to $34,999 (percent) 6.8B 6.3B 6.2C 6.1C 6.0C $35,000 to $39,999 (percent) 5.7B 5.8B 6.0B 6.2B 5.9C $40,000 to $44,999 (percent) 5.1C 5.4B 5.1C 4.9C 5.5C $45,000 to $49,999 (percent) 4.2C 4.1C 4.4C 4.3C 4.4C $50,000 to $59,999 (percent) 6.6B 6.3B 6.3B 7.0B 6.5B $60,000 and over (percent) 11.4B 12.3B 13.1B 13.8B 13.6B Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0101February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 12. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 12Table 4High income trends of tax filers in Canada, provinces, territories and census metropolitanareas (CMA), national thresholdsIncome concepts=Total incomeIncome groups Statistics 2008 2009 2010Top 1 percent income Threshold value (current dollars) 202,600 198,000 201,400group Number of tax filers (persons) 249,755 252,300 254,730 Percentage, males 79.7 79.2 79.1 Percentage, females 20.3 20.8 20.9 Percentage married or in common-law 82.8 82.8 82.7 relationship Percentage married or in common-law 86.7 86.8 86.7 relationship, males Percentage married or in common-law 67.7 67.8 67.7 relationship, females Median age (years) 51 51 51 Median income (current dollars) 291,000 278,700 283,400 Average income (current dollars) 461,800 424,900 429,600 Share of income 11.5 10.7 10.6 Share of income, males 9.5 8.7 8.7 Share of income, females 2.0 1.9 1.9 Percentage of income from wages and 63.8 62.4 63.9 salaries Percentage of income from wages and 67.1 65.6 66.9 salaries, males Percentage of income from wages and 48.0 47.8 50.2 salaries, females Percentage in the same quantile last year 72.1 71.3 72.1 Percentage in the same quantile five years 52.5 52.7 52.7 agoBottom 99 percent Threshold value (current dollars) 202,600 198,000 201,400income group Number of tax filers (persons) 24,725,060 24,976,58 25,217,1 5 45 Percentage, males 47.8 47.7 47.7 Percentage, females 52.2 52.3 52.3 Percentage married or in common-law 56.7 56.9 56.9 relationship Percentage married or in common-law 59.0 59.2 59.2 relationship, males Percentage married or in common-law 54.6 54.8 54.8 relationship, females Median age (years) 46 46 47 Median income (current dollars) 28,100 28,000 28,400 Average income (current dollars) 36,000 35,900 36,600 Share of income 88.5 89.3 89.4 Share of income, males 50.1 49.9 49.9 Share of income, females 38.4 39.4 39.5 Percentage of income from wages and 69.6 68.5 68.4 salaries Percentage of income from wages and 72.7 71.1 71.3 salaries, males Percentage of income from wages and 65.5 65.1 64.7 salaries, females Percentage in the same quantile last year 99.7 99.7 99.7 Percentage in the same quantile five years 99.6 99.6 99.5 ago Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 204-001February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 13. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 13 APPENDIX BTable 1Family characteristics, labour characteristics, by sex and age groupAge group=All age groupsSex Labour characteristics 2008 2009 2010Both sexes Total labour income 18,516,390 18,514,640 18,579,750 Labour participation rate (rate) 70.0 69.2 68.8Males Total labour income 9,583,680 9,564,930 9,597,260 Labour participation rate (rate) 75.2 74.3 73.8Females Total labour income 8,932,710 8,949,710 8,982,480 Labour participation rate (rate) 65.1 64.5 64.1 Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 111-0018February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 14. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 14Table 2Labour force characteristics by age and sex (2012) Unemployment rate Participation rate Employment rate %Both sexes 7.2 66.7 61.815 to 24 years 14.3 63.6 54.515 to 19 years 20.1 49.5 39.620 to 24 years 11.0 76.1 67.725 years and older 6.0 67.2 63.225 to 44 years 6.3 87.1 81.625 to 34 years 6.9 86.3 80.435 to 44 years 5.6 87.9 82.945 to 64 years 5.8 75.7 71.345 to 54 years 5.6 85.7 80.955 to 64 years 6.3 63.8 59.865 years and older 4.6 12.6 12.055 years and older 6.0 36.9 34.7 Unemployment rate Participation rate Employment rateMales 7.7 71.3 65.815 to 24 years 15.9 63.5 53.415 to 19 years 22.0 48.3 37.720 to 24 years 12.5 77.1 67.425 years and older 6.3 72.8 68.325 to 44 years 6.4 92.0 86.125 to 34 years 7.5 91.2 84.435 to 44 years 5.4 92.8 87.845 to 64 years 6.2 80.0 75.045 to 54 years 6.0 88.8 83.555 to 64 years 6.7 69.3 64.765 years and older 4.7 17.1 16.355 years and older 6.3 42.9 40.2 Unemployment rate Participation rate Employment rateFemales 6.8 62.2 57.915 to 24 years 12.6 63.6 55.615 to 19 years 18.2 50.8 41.620 to 24 years 9.3 75.0 68.025 years and older 5.7 61.9 58.425 to 44 years 6.1 82.2 77.225 to 34 years 6.2 81.4 76.335 to 44 years 5.9 83.0 78.145 to 64 years 5.4 71.5 67.645 to 54 years 5.2 82.6 78.355 to 64 years 5.8 58.5 55.165 years and older 4.5 8.8 8.455 years and older 5.6 31.6 29.8Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 282-0002.February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 15. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 15Table 3Estimated numbers of earners by sex (2006 to 2010) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 thousandsAll earners 18,837 19,230 19,452 19,451 19,693Women 8,832 9,061 9,176 9,223 9,340Men 10,005 10,169 10,277 10,228 10,353Full-year full-time workers 9,041 9,243 9,560 8,889 8,858Women 3,783 3,914 4,043 3,824 3,900Men 5,258 5,329 5,517 5,065 4,957Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0101.February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 16. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 16 APPENDIX CTable 1People employed, by educational attainment (2012) Both sexes Men Women %Total 61.8 65.8 57.915 to 24 years 54.5 53.4 55.625 to 44 years 81.6 86.1 77.245 and over 51.5 56.5 46.8Less than Grade 9 20.0 27.4 13.515 to 24 years 26.0 29.2 21.425 to 44 years 50.5 63.9 34.345 and over 15.8 22.0 10.9Some secondary school 39.5 46.3 32.115 to 24 years 35.2 36.1 34.225 to 44 years 64.9 73.3 52.445 and over 34.4 43.9 25.3High school graduate 61.1 68.1 54.315 to 24 years 63.4 63.7 62.925 to 44 years 77.7 84.8 68.645 and over 51.7 58.8 46.1Some postsecondary 60.6 62.6 58.515 to 24 years 56.5 53.6 59.425 to 44 years 75.5 80.8 69.345 and over 54.0 58.5 49.9 1Postsecondary certificate or diploma 70.6 73.6 67.715 to 24 years 74.5 73.7 75.325 to 44 years 85.2 88.9 81.645 and over 59.2 62.0 56.6Bachelors degree 74.8 76.9 73.115 to 24 years 71.2 67.3 73.825 to 44 years 85.4 89.8 82.145 and over 63.8 65.9 61.7Above bachelors degree 75.4 75.1 75.615 to 24 years 70.3 71.3 70.225 to 44 years 86.0 88.4 83.945 and over 66.7 66.8 66.6Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 282-0004 and Catalogue no. 89F0133XIE.February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 17. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 17Table 2Female-to-male earnings ratios, by selected characteristics, 2010 constant dollarsSelected characteristics 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010All age groups 75.5A 74.2A 76.0A 78.2A 77.6AAll marital statuses 75.5A 74.2A 76.0A 78.2A 77.6ANever married 96.0C 95.8C 87.3B 96.1B 96.1BMarried 70.1A 70.0A 72.3A 72.6A 71.8AOther marital status 75.2C 75.0C 76.0B 80.2C 83.3CAll education levels 75.5A 74.2A 76.0A 78.2A 77.6ASome secondary6 62.0C 67.4C 70.4C 73.3C 69.5DGraduated high school6 73.4B 72.3B 76.5B 78.6C 84.8CSome postsecondary 76.9C 81.2C 77.9C 79.4C 74.1CPostsecondary certificate or diploma8 71.7A 72.3B 74.9B 74.4B 73.7BUniversity degree9 75.3B 74.9B 78.6B 79.9B 77.1BSource: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0104February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 18. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 18 APPENDIX DTable 1Employment by industry and sex (in percent) 2012 Number employed Both sexes Men Women %All industries 100.0 100.0 100.0Goods-producing sector 22.1 32.9 10.2Agriculture 1.8 2.3 1.1Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas1 2.1 3.3 0.8Utilities 0.8 1.2 0.4Construction 7.2 12.2 1.8Manufacturing 10.2 14.0 6.0Services-producing sector 77.9 67.1 89.8Trade 15.1 14.8 15.4Transportation and warehousing 4.9 7.1 2.4Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 6.2 5.1 7.5Professional, scientific and technical services 7.4 8.2 6.6Business, building and other support services2 3.9 4.2 3.7Educational services 7.4 4.8 10.2Health care and social assistance 12.2 4.1 21.1Information, culture and recreation 4.5 4.8 4.2Accommodation and food services 6.3 4.9 7.8Other services 4.5 3.9 5.3Public administration 5.5 5.2 5.7Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 282-0008.February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 19. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 19 APPENDIX ETable 1Reasons for part-time work by sex and age groupMen 2012 Men Total 15-24 25-44 45 and over %Own illness 3.7 0.7 5.2 6.7Caring for children 1.3 x 3.9 1.2Other personal/family responsibilities 1.4 0.6 2.1 2.1Going to school 37.2 73.4 20.5 0.9Personal preference 25.1 4.3 15.5 58.4Other voluntary 2.8 1.3 5.3 3.2 1Other 28.4 19.7 47.5 27.4Total employed part-time 1,086.5 480.1 236.8 369.6(thousands)% employed part-time2 11.8 39.4 5.9 9.3Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 282-0014 and 282-0001 and Catalogue no 89F0133XIE.Women 2012 Women Total 15-24 25-44 45 and over %Own illness 3.4 0.5 2.7 6.2Caring for children 13.1 1.2 34.1 5.2Other personal/family responsibilities 3.8 0.5 4.2 6.0Going to school 24.7 71.4 8.6 1.0Personal preference 26.3 4.6 14.7 52.9Other voluntary 2.1 1.2 2.8 2.2 1Other 26.6 20.6 32.9 26.3Total employed part-time 2,208.3 668.6 692.9 846.8(thousands)% employed part-time2 26.5 55.2 19.3 24.0Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 282-0014 and 282-0001 and Catalogue no 89F0133XIE.February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 20. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 20Table 2Family characteristics, husband-wife families, by wifes contribution to husband-wifeemployment incomeWifes contribution to Husband-wife families2 2008 2009 2010husband-wife familyemployment income2,3,4Number of husband-wife Total husband-wife families6 6,504,820 6,559,500 6,599,070families with employment Husband-wife families with no children6 2,700,460 2,754,110 2,787,420income Husband-wife families with 1 child6 1,507,520 1,510,670 1,512,780 Husband-wife families with 2 children6 1,607,400 1,607,990 1,610,820 Husband-wife families with 3 or more 689,440 686,730 688,040 children6Median contribution of the Total husband-wife families6 29,200 29,780 30,400wife to husband-wife family Husband-wife families with no children6 28,910 29,340 29,780employment income Husband-wife families with 1 child6 28,900 29,400 30,070(dollars)8 Husband-wife families with 2 children6 31,020 31,830 32,880 Husband-wife families with 3 or more 25,910 26,480 27,280 children6Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 111-0021February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 21. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 21Table 3Family characteristics, by family type, family composition and characteristics of parentsFamily type2,8,9 Parent 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 characteristics Couple families8 All parental age 7,629,330 7,727,870 7,832,060 7,926,210 7,989,380 groups5 Median total income 70,400 73,420 75,880 75,320 76,950 (dollars)4,11 Lone-parent All parental age 1,391,330 1,379,310 1,383,470 1,389,570 1,401,870 families9 groups5 Median total income 33,000 34,540 35,990 36,100 37,050 (dollars)4,11Male lone-parent All parental age 237,050 234,670 242,210 243,270 247,020 families9 groups5 Median total income 46,100 48,240 49,670 49,070 50,450 (dollars)4,11 Female lone- All parental age 1,154,270 1,144,640 1,141,260 1,146,310 1,154,850 parent families9 groups5 Median total income 30,900 32,360 33,750 33,950 34,900 (dollars)4,11Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 111-0011February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska
  • 22. INCOME EARNING GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN (2006-2012) 22Chart 1Unionization rates of workers age 25 to 54February 15, 2013 Monika E. Sosnowska

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