SCI 9A Lesson 1 Mar 14 - Introduction to Genetics

  • 375 views
Uploaded on

Lesson 1 …

Lesson 1
Introduction to Genetics

More in: Lifestyle , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
375
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/15/11

Transcript

  • 1. WARM-UP ACTIVITY
    • 1 ) Choose a partner.
    • 2) On the piece of paper provided, write down one of each of the following letters :
    • B or b
    • C or c
    • W or w
    • D or d
    • L or l
    • F or f
    • P or p
    • 3) Hang on to your paper – don’t show any other group!
    Example: b C W D l f P
  • 2. INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS
  • 3. NOTE:
    • Terms in green are definitions
    • – these are key terms to know
    • Terms in blue are important words or concepts
    • – please make note
  • 4.
    • Who was Gregor Mendel?
    • 1822-1884
    • Austrian monk
    • Known as the
    • “ Father of Genetics”
  • 5.
    • Gregor Mendel
    • Studied the inheritance of traits (characteristics) in pea plants
      • Found that the plants’ offspring retained traits of the parents
    • From these experiments, Mendel developed The Laws of Inheritance
  • 6. Definitions: trait: a characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring heredity: the passing of traits from parents to offspring genetics: the study of heredity
  • 7.
    • Inheritance
    • Mendel stated that physical traits are inherited as “particles”
    • Mendel did not know that the “particles” were actually chromosomes and DNA
  • 8. Traits in Pea Plants Pea plants have many different traits Some traits are dominant over others Allele: a form of a gene (different bases along the DNA) Dominant: allele that is expressed (regardless of its counterpart allele); represented by a capital letter (e.g. T) Recessive: allele that is expressed only when its counterpart allele is also recessive ; represented by a small letter (e.g. t) Examples of traits in pea plants
  • 9. PUNNETT SQUARE
    • Used to help solve genetics problems
    • Shows what the offspring of a female and male parent will look like
    An example of a Punnett square Male Female
  • 10. PUNNETT SQUARE
    • What alleles will the offspring of two parents have?
    • What will the offspring look like?
    Genotype: the combination of alleles for a trait e.g. TT, Tt, tt Phenotype: the physical feature resulting from a genotype e.g. tall, short Short
  • 11. GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE Genotype of alleles: P = purple flower p = white flower All genes occur in pairs, so 2 alleles affect a characteristic Possible combinations are: Genotypes PP Pp pp Phenotypes purple purple white
  • 12. GENOTYPES
    • Homozygous genotype:
    • gene combination involving 2 dominant or 2 recessive genes (e.g. TT or tt) ; also called pure  
    • Heterozygous genotype:
    • gene combination of 1 dominant and 1 recessive allele (e.g. Tt) ; also called hybrid
    • Note: Heterozygous offspring will express the dominant allele (T) over the recessive allele (t) because the dominant allele is ‘stronger’ than the recessive allele
  • 13. GENERATION “GAP”
    • Parental P 1 generation: the parental generation in a breeding experiment.
    • F 1 generation: the 1 st generation offspring in a breeding experiment (1st filial generation)
      • Result from breeding individuals from the P 1 generation
    • F 2 generation: the 2 nd generation offspring in a breeding experiment (2nd filial generation)
      • Result from breeding individuals from the F 1 generation
  • 14. GENERATION “GAP” Parent generation (P1) 1 st filial generation (F1) 2 nd filial generation (F2)
  • 15. BREED THE P1 GENERATION P1 = tall (TT) x short (tt) pea plants T T t t
  • 16. BREED THE P1 GENERATION: SOLUTION P1 = tall (TT) x short (tt) pea plants t t T T Tt Tt Tt Tt All Tt = tall (heterozygous tall) produces the F 1 generation
  • 17. BREED THE F1 GENERATION F1 = tall (Tt) x tall (Tt) pea plants T t T t
  • 18. BREED THE F1 GENERATION: SOLUTION F1 = tall (Tt) x tall (Tt) pea plants T t T t TT Tt Tt tt produces the F 2 generation 1/4 (25%) = TT 1/2 (50%) = Tt 1/4 (25%) = tt 1:2:1 genotype 3:1 phenotype
  • 19. FOLLOWING THE GENERATIONS Cross 2 pure plants TT x tt Results in all hybrids Tt Cross 2 hybrids, results in 3 Tall & 1 Short TT, Tt, tt
  • 20. GREGOR MENDEL RAP
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EvR_Sdm1orU
  • 21. ACTIVITY!
    • As budding scientists, you will get the chance to see the results of a cross of the P1 parental generation!
    • How, you may ask?
    • Well, by making your own sperm and eggs!
  • 22. INSTRUCTIONS
    • 1) Working with a partner, you will be assigned the
    • task of making either a paper maché sperm or an egg.
    • 2) Add your group’s piece of paper with your genetic code inside the balloon provided.
    • 3) Blow up your balloon, tie it off, and begin paper maché-ing! The supplies will be provided on your lab bench.
    • 4) Only put 2 layers of newsprint around your balloon or it won’t dry.
    • 5) Leave your balloon to dry on top of a big piece of newspaper.
    • 6) Add your group members’ name to the tie of the balloon using a piece of masking tape.
  • 23. HOMEWORK FOR NEXT CLASS:
    • Complete the Genetics Practice Problems worksheet
    • Read over class notes and check out the class blog: http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/
  • 24. WORKS CITED
    • Images taken from the following sources:
    • http://www.softchalk.com/lessonchallenge09/lesson/genetics/index.html
    • http://dj003.k12.sd.us/SCHOOL%20NOTES/chapter_03.htm
    • http://www.exploringnature.org/db/detail.php?dbID=22&detID=2290
    • http://cmcweb.lr.k12.nj.us/webquest/sidelsky/genetherapy.htm
    • http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookgenintro.html
    • http://ghshonorsbio.blogspot.com/2006_03_01_archive.html
    • http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/geneticsnot.html
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Punnett_square_mendel_flowers.svg
    • http://www.goldiesroom.org/Note%20Packets/18%20Genetics/00%20Genetics--WHOLE.htm
    • http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-sperm-and-egg-image14409175
    • PowerPoint source: http://www.biologyjunction.com/pwpt_biology.htm
    • Copyright C. Messengale