SCI 9 Lesson 1 Mar 15 - Introduction to Genetics
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SCI 9 Lesson 1 Mar 15 - Introduction to Genetics

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Introduction to Genetics

Introduction to Genetics

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  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11
  • Mendelian Genetics 03/16/11

SCI 9 Lesson 1 Mar 15 - Introduction to Genetics SCI 9 Lesson 1 Mar 15 - Introduction to Genetics Presentation Transcript

  • INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS
  • NOTE:
    • Terms in green are definitions
    • – these are key terms to know
    • Terms in blue are important words or concepts
    • – please make note
    • Who was Gregor Mendel?
    • 1822-1884
    • Austrian monk
    • Known as the
    • “ Father of Genetics”
    • Gregor Mendel
    • Studied the inheritance of traits (characteristics) in pea plants
      • Found that the plants’ offspring retained traits of the parents
    • From these experiments, Mendel developed The Laws of Inheritance
  • Definitions: trait: a characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring heredity: the passing of traits from parents to offspring genetics: the study of heredity
    • Inheritance
    • Mendel stated that physical traits are inherited as “particles”
    • Mendel did not know that the “particles” were actually chromosomes and DNA
  • Traits in Pea Plants Pea plants have many different traits Some traits are dominant over others Allele: a form of a gene (different bases along the DNA) Dominant: allele that is expressed (regardless of its counterpart allele); represented by a capital letter (e.g. T) Recessive: allele that is expressed only when its counterpart allele is also recessive ; represented by a small letter (e.g. t) Examples of traits in pea plants
  • PUNNETT SQUARE
    • Used to help solve genetics problems
    • Shows what the offspring of a female and male parent will look like
    An example of a Punnett square Male Female
  • PUNNETT SQUARE
    • What alleles will the offspring of two parents have?
    • What will the offspring look like?
    Genotype: the combination of alleles for a trait e.g. TT, Tt, tt Phenotype: the physical feature resulting from a genotype e.g. tall, short Short
  • GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE Genotype of alleles: P = purple flower p = white flower All genes occur in pairs, so 2 alleles affect a characteristic Possible combinations are: Genotypes PP Pp pp Phenotypes purple purple white
  • GENOTYPES
    • Homozygous genotype:
    • gene combination involving 2 dominant or 2 recessive genes (e.g. TT or tt) ; also called pure  
    • Heterozygous genotype:
    • gene combination of 1 dominant and 1 recessive allele (e.g. Tt) ; also called hybrid
    • Note: Heterozygous offspring will express the dominant allele (T) over the recessive allele (t) because the dominant allele is ‘stronger’ than the recessive allele
  • GENERATION “GAP”
    • Parental P 1 generation: the parental generation in a breeding experiment.
    • F 1 generation: the 1 st generation offspring in a breeding experiment (1st filial generation)
      • Result from breeding individuals from the P 1 generation
    • F 2 generation: the 2 nd generation offspring in a breeding experiment (2nd filial generation)
      • Result from breeding individuals from the F 1 generation
  • GENERATION “GAP” Parent generation (P1) 1 st filial generation (F1) 2 nd filial generation (F2)
  • BREED THE P1 GENERATION P1 = tall (TT) x short (tt) pea plants T T t t
  • BREED THE P1 GENERATION: SOLUTION P1 = tall (TT) x short (tt) pea plants t t T T Tt Tt Tt Tt All Tt = tall (heterozygous tall) produces the F 1 generation
  • BREED THE F1 GENERATION F1 = tall (Tt) x tall (Tt) pea plants T t T t
  • BREED THE F1 GENERATION: SOLUTION F1 = tall (Tt) x tall (Tt) pea plants T t T t TT Tt Tt tt produces the F 2 generation 1/4 (25%) = TT 1/2 (50%) = Tt 1/4 (25%) = tt 1:2:1 genotype 3:1 phenotype
  • FOLLOWING THE GENERATIONS Cross 2 pure plants TT x tt Results in all hybrids Tt Cross 2 hybrids, results in 3 Tall & 1 Short TT, Tt, tt
  • GREGOR MENDEL RAP
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EvR_Sdm1orU
  • ACTIVITY!
    • As budding scientists, you will get the chance to see the results of a cross of the P1 parental generation!
    • How, you may ask?
    • Well, by making your own sperm and eggs!
  • INSTRUCTIONS
    • 1) Working with a partner, you will be assigned the
    • task of making either a paper maché sperm or egg.
    • 2) Add your group’s piece of paper with your genetic code inside the balloon provided.
    • 3) Blow up your balloon, tie it off, and begin paper maché-ing! The supplies will be provided on your lab bench.
    • 4) Only put 2 layers of newsprint around your balloon or it won’t dry.
    • 5) Leave your balloon to dry on top of a big piece of newspaper.
    • 6) Add your group members’ name to the tie of the balloon using a piece of masking tape.
  • HOMEWORK FOR NEXT CLASS:
    • Complete the Genetics Practice Problems worksheet
    • Read over class notes and check out the class blog: http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/
  • WORKS CITED
    • Images taken from the following sources:
    • http://www.softchalk.com/lessonchallenge09/lesson/genetics/index.html
    • http://dj003.k12.sd.us/SCHOOL%20NOTES/chapter_03.htm
    • http://www.exploringnature.org/db/detail.php?dbID=22&detID=2290
    • http://cmcweb.lr.k12.nj.us/webquest/sidelsky/genetherapy.htm
    • http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookgenintro.html
    • http://ghshonorsbio.blogspot.com/2006_03_01_archive.html
    • http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/geneticsnot.html
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Punnett_square_mendel_flowers.svg
    • http://www.goldiesroom.org/Note%20Packets/18%20Genetics/00%20Genetics--WHOLE.htm
    • http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-sperm-and-egg-image14409175
    • PowerPoint source: http://www.biologyjunction.com/pwpt_biology.htm
    • Copyright C. Messengale