Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Transfer of Energy in the Earth's Atmosphere (1)
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Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Transfer of Energy in the Earth's Atmosphere (1)

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Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Transfer of Energy in the Earth's Atmosphere (1) Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Transfer of Energy in the Earth's Atmosphere (1) Presentation Transcript

  • Homework from last class:
    • Complete “Thermal energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy” worksheet (p. 181 in BC Science 10 workbook)
    • Complete “Thermal energy transfer” worksheet
    • (p. 182 in BC Science 10 workbook)
    • Read over class notes and check out the class blog: http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/
  • The Earth’s Atmosphere Chapter 10.2 pp. 436-443
  • Reveal Earth’s Atmosphere
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1YAOT92wuD8
  • Note:
    • Terms in green are definitions
    • – these are key terms to know
    • Terms in blue are important words or concepts
    • – please make note
    • What is an atmosphere?
    • Atmosphere: layers of gases that extend above a planet
    Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere p. 436
    • The Earth’s atmosphere is a key factor in allowing life to survive on the planet.
      • The narrow band of air of the atmosphere has the right ingredients and maintains the correct temperature, to allow life to form and survive.
      • The Earth’s atmosphere originally contained no oxygen and consisted of gases released from volcanic eruptions.
    Origin of the Earth’s Atmosphere p. 437
        • Scientists think that oxygen first came from the breakdown of water by sunlight, then later from photosynthesis by micro-organisms and plants.
      • Eventually, the balance of CO 2 to O 2 stabilized
      • The atmosphere likely contained > 50% water vapour, carbon dioxide gas, sulfur-containing gas, and hydrogen gas
  • What is air?
      • Air: a combination of gases in the lower atmosphere, near the Earth’s surface.
      • Air = 99% nitrogen and oxygen
      • The remaining 1% consists mostly of argon gas and carbon dioxide gas
      • The density of the atmosphere decreases with altitude .
      • Example: If you climb a mountain, the air becomes thinner the higher you climb  hard to breathe in enough O 2
    p. 437 The composition of Earth’s atmosphere
  • The Layers of the Atmosphere
    • The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of 5 layers .
    • 1) Troposphere: the lowest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere,
    • 8 km to 16 km thick
        • Highest density layer (all other layers compress it).
        • Almost all water vapour found in troposphere  location of weather
          • Solar energy and thermal energy from Earth keep air moving
    p. 438 Temperature range: +15ºC at the bottom to –55ºC at the top
  • Bill Nye the Science Guy - Atmosphere
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGNxYtT_36I
  • The Layers of the Atmosphere
      • 2) Stratosphere: the second layer, above the troposphere
      • 10 km to 50 km above Earth, warming from –55ºC as altitude increases
        • The air is cold, dry, and clean in the stratosphere.
        • Strong, steady winds  planes often fly at the bottom of the stratosphere to avoid turbulent convection currents in the troposphere.
    p. 438-439
        • Ozone layer:
        • located in the stratosphere; blocks harmful UV radiation from the sun.
  • The Upper Atmosphere
      • 3) Mesosphere: 50 km to 80 km above Earth
        • Temperatures are as low as –100ºC
        • This layer is where space debris burns up when it begins to hit particles. (ex: meteors)
      • 4) Thermosphere: 80 km to 500 km above Earth
        • Temperatures can reach +1500ºC to +3000ºC
        • Location of the Northern Lights ( aurora borealis )
        •  charged particles in Earth’s magnetic field collide with particles in the thermosphere.
      • 5) Exosphere: 500 km to 700 km above Earth where the atmosphere merges with outer space.
    The layers of Earth’s atmosphere p. 439
    • Almost all of the thermal energy on Earth comes from the Sun.
      • This is only a small fraction of the solar radiation that reaches Earth.
      • Most thermal energy is transferred near the equator, which receives a more direct source of solar radiation.
    Radiation and Conduction in the Atmosphere pp. 440 - 441 Angle of incidence
      • Insolation: amount of solar radiation an area receives, measured in W/m 2
        • Insolation decreases if there are particles of matter (dust, smoke) in the way or if the angle of incidence of the solar radiation is too great.
    • Solar radiation does not heat the atmosphere directly.
        • The Earth’s surface absorbs solar radiation, heats up, then
        • radiates the thermal energy into the atmosphere.
          • This provides 70 percent of the air’s thermal energy.
        • Convection currents in the air spread the thermal energy around.
    pp. 440 - 441
  • The Radiation Budget and Albedo
    • Radiation budget: Earth’s balance of incoming and outgoing energy
      • Earth’s radiation budget = heat gained – heat lost
      • Incoming short-wave solar radiation is reflected and absorbed to various degrees (see p. 441)
    pp. 441-442
  • The Radiation Budget and Albedo
    • Albedo: refers to the amount of energy reflected by a surface.
      • Light-coloured surfaces (snow, sand) have a high albedo and reflect energy.
      • Dark-coloured surfaces (soil, water) have a low albedo and absorb energy.
    p. 442
  • Homework for next class:
    • Complete “Layers of the Atmosphere” worksheet
    • Complete the Reading Check questions 1-5 on p. 443
    • Read over class notes and check out the class blog: http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/
  • Works Cited
    • Images taken from the following sources:
    • http://oilismastery.blogspot.com/2009/12/scientists-admit-earth-grows.html
    • http://www.geraldinerichard.com/Digital_Art/Learning_Curve/Entries/2004/12/14_AtmosphereSX.html
    • http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/outreach/carbon_toolkit/basics.html
    • http://www.astrobio.net/amee/summer_2008/Features/PluckingDaisyworld.php
    • http://www.organiclightsculptures.com/NNP/files/tag-renewable-gasoline.php
    • http://thisistheendoftheworldasweknowit.com/archives/tag/volcanic-eruptions
    • http://globalgreenpals.com/2010/08/clean-air-kate-learns-about-ozone-action-days/
    • http://www.topnews.in/tree/Dubai/Dubai
    • http://my.opera.com/nielsol/blog/2009/02/13/ice-albedo-feedback