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Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Energy Transfer in the Earth's Atmosphere (1)
 

Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Energy Transfer in the Earth's Atmosphere (1)

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    Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Energy Transfer in the Earth's Atmosphere (1) Sci 10 Lesson 3 April 18 - Energy Transfer in the Earth's Atmosphere (1) Presentation Transcript

    • Homework from last class:
      • Complete “Thermal energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy” worksheet (p. 181 in BC Science 10 workbook)
      • Complete “Thermal energy transfer” worksheet
      • (p. 182 in BC Science 10 workbook)
      • Read over class notes and check out the class blog: http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/
    • The Earth’s Atmosphere Chapter 10.2 pp. 436-443
    • Reveal Earth’s Atmosphere
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1YAOT92wuD8
    • Note:
      • Terms in green are definitions
      • – these are key terms to know
      • Terms in blue are important words or concepts
      • – please make note
      • What is an atmosphere?
      • Atmosphere: layers of gases that extend above a planet
      Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere p. 436
      • The Earth’s atmosphere is a key factor in allowing life to survive on the planet.
        • The narrow band of air of the atmosphere has the right ingredients and maintains the correct temperature, to allow life to form and survive.
        • The Earth’s atmosphere originally contained no oxygen and consisted of gases released from volcanic eruptions.
      Origin of the Earth’s Atmosphere p. 437
          • Scientists think that oxygen first came from the breakdown of water by sunlight, then later from photosynthesis by micro-organisms and plants.
        • Eventually, the balance of CO 2 to O 2 stabilized
        • The atmosphere likely contained > 50% water vapour, carbon dioxide gas, sulfur-containing gas, and hydrogen gas
    • What is air?
        • Air: a combination of gases in the lower atmosphere, near the Earth’s surface.
        • Air = 99% nitrogen and oxygen
        • The remaining 1% consists mostly of argon gas and carbon dioxide gas
        • The density of the atmosphere decreases with altitude .
        • Example: If you climb a mountain, the air becomes thinner the higher you climb  hard to breathe in enough O 2
      p. 437 The composition of Earth’s atmosphere
    • The Layers of the Atmosphere
      • The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of 5 layers .
      • 1) Troposphere: the lowest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere,
      • 8 km to 16 km thick
          • Highest density layer (all other layers compress it).
          • Almost all water vapour found in troposphere  location of weather
            • Solar energy and thermal energy from Earth keep air moving
      p. 438 Temperature range: +15ºC at the bottom to –55ºC at the top
    • Bill Nye the Science Guy - Atmosphere
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGNxYtT_36I
    • The Layers of the Atmosphere
        • 2) Stratosphere: the second layer, above the troposphere
        • 10 km to 50 km above Earth, warming from –55ºC as altitude increases
          • The air is cold, dry, and clean in the stratosphere.
          • Strong, steady winds  planes often fly at the bottom of the stratosphere to avoid turbulent convection currents in the troposphere.
      p. 438-439
          • Ozone layer:
          • located in the stratosphere; blocks harmful UV radiation from the sun.
    • The Upper Atmosphere
        • 3) Mesosphere: 50 km to 80 km above Earth
          • Temperatures are as low as –100ºC
          • This layer is where space debris burns up when it begins to hit particles. (ex: meteors)
        • 4) Thermosphere: 80 km to 500 km above Earth
          • Temperatures can reach +1500ºC to +3000ºC
          • Location of the Northern Lights ( aurora borealis )
          •  charged particles in Earth’s magnetic field collide with particles in the thermosphere.
        • 5) Exosphere: 500 km to 700 km above Earth where the atmosphere merges with outer space.
      The layers of Earth’s atmosphere p. 439
      • Almost all of the thermal energy on Earth comes from the Sun.
        • This is only a small fraction of the solar radiation that reaches Earth.
        • Most thermal energy is transferred near the equator, which receives a more direct source of solar radiation.
      Radiation and Conduction in the Atmosphere pp. 440 - 441 Angle of incidence
        • Insolation: amount of solar radiation an area receives, measured in W/m 2
          • Insolation decreases if there are particles of matter (dust, smoke) in the way or if the angle of incidence of the solar radiation is too great.
      • Solar radiation does not heat the atmosphere directly.
          • The Earth’s surface absorbs solar radiation, heats up, then
          • radiates the thermal energy into the atmosphere.
            • This provides 70 percent of the air’s thermal energy.
          • Convection currents in the air spread the thermal energy around.
      pp. 440 - 441
    • The Radiation Budget and Albedo
      • Radiation budget: Earth’s balance of incoming and outgoing energy
        • Earth’s radiation budget = heat gained – heat lost
        • Incoming short-wave solar radiation is reflected and absorbed to various degrees (see p. 441)
      pp. 441-442
    • The Radiation Budget and Albedo
      • Albedo: refers to the amount of energy reflected by a surface.
        • Light-coloured surfaces (snow, sand) have a high albedo and reflect energy.
        • Dark-coloured surfaces (soil, water) have a low albedo and absorb energy.
      p. 442
    • Homework for next class:
      • Complete “Layers of the Atmosphere” worksheet
      • Complete the Reading Check questions 1-5 on p. 443
      • Read over class notes and check out the class blog: http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/
    • Works Cited
      • Images taken from the following sources:
      • http://oilismastery.blogspot.com/2009/12/scientists-admit-earth-grows.html
      • http://www.geraldinerichard.com/Digital_Art/Learning_Curve/Entries/2004/12/14_AtmosphereSX.html
      • http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/outreach/carbon_toolkit/basics.html
      • http://www.astrobio.net/amee/summer_2008/Features/PluckingDaisyworld.php
      • http://www.organiclightsculptures.com/NNP/files/tag-renewable-gasoline.php
      • http://thisistheendoftheworldasweknowit.com/archives/tag/volcanic-eruptions
      • http://globalgreenpals.com/2010/08/clean-air-kate-learns-about-ozone-action-days/
      • http://www.topnews.in/tree/Dubai/Dubai
      • http://my.opera.com/nielsol/blog/2009/02/13/ice-albedo-feedback