Sci 10 Lesson 2 April 14 - Temperature, Thermal Energy and Heat


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Sci 10 Lesson 2 April 14 - Temperature, Thermal Energy and Heat

  1. 1. Homework from last class: <ul><li>Complete the blue Ch. 10.1 Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat worksheet </li></ul>
  2. 2. Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat Chapter 10.1 pp. 424-431
  3. 3. Introduction to Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat <ul><li>Do all these statements refer to the same idea? </li></ul><ul><li>In fact….they don’t! </li></ul>This classroom is freezing! This pizza is too hot! It feels so warm outside! temperature thermal energy heat
  4. 4. Note: <ul><li>Terms in green are definitions </li></ul><ul><li>– these are key terms to know </li></ul><ul><li>Terms in blue are important words or concepts </li></ul><ul><li> – please make note </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Kinetic molecular theory (aka KMT): the theory that all matter is made up of particles (atoms and molecules) moving constantly in random directions </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic energy: the energy of a particle due to its motion. </li></ul><ul><li>When particles collide , kinetic energy is transferred between them (like how a bowling ball transfers energy to the bowling pins it hits) </li></ul>Kinetic Molecular Theory p. 424
  6. 6. <ul><li>The particles of a substance move differently depending on the state of the substance. </li></ul><ul><li>In solids, particles vibrate slightly but do not change position. </li></ul><ul><li>In liquids, particles vibrate more and move around within a set volume. </li></ul><ul><li>In gases, particles vibrate greatly and move around to take all volume available. </li></ul>Kinetic Molecular Theory p. 424 solid liquid gas
  7. 7. <ul><li>Temperature: the measure of the average kinetic energy of all particles in a sample of matter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The movement of particles is what we measure as temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature is measured using 3 different temperature scales: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin </li></ul></ul>Temperature Fahrenheit: 1 st invented scale Celsius: Water freezing point = 0°C boiling point = 100°C Kelvin: scale based on absolute zero (where particles have no kinetic energy) pp. 425 - 426
  8. 8. Thermal Energy <ul><li>Thermal energy: the total energy of all the particles in a substance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal energy = all kinetic energy + all potential energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic energy: the energy of a particle due to its motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential energy: the stored energy of an object or particle due to its position or state </li></ul></ul>pp. 426
  9. 9. Heat <ul><li>Heat: the amount thermal energy that transfers from an area of higher temperature to an area of lower temperature. </li></ul>p. 427 Heat flow: hot stove element  the frying pan  egg Example: Cooking an egg
  10. 10. Bill Nye the Science Guy - Heat <ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 11. Heat Transfer <ul><li>Heat can be transferred in 3 ways: </li></ul>p. 427-431 Conduction Convection Radiation
  12. 12. Activity - Heat Transfer <ul><li>1) I will divide you into 3 different groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 1 will examine conduction </li></ul><ul><li>Group 2 will examine convection </li></ul><ul><li>Group 3 will examine radiation </li></ul><ul><li>2) Jot down some notes on your assigned form of heat transfer. Give an example of this form of heat transfer. </li></ul><ul><li>3) After 5 minutes, I will put you in groups of 3. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Tell your 2 group members about your assigned form of heat transfer. Take notes on theirs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Heat Transfer <ul><li>Conduction: _______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  14. 14. Heat Transfer <ul><li>Convection: _______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  15. 15. Heat Transfer <ul><li>Radiation: ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thermal Energy Transfer <ul><li>Conduction: the transfer of heat by direct contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat is transferred from matter with a higher temperature and greater kinetic energy to matter with lower temperature and less kinetic energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: a cold spoon warms up when placed in a cup of hot coffee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal conductors (such as metals ) transfer heat easily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulators (such as wood and air) do not transfer heat easily. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Convection: the transfer of heat in fluids (liquids and gases) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convection is the movement of heat from hot to cold within a fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: a lava lamp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to a difference in density, hot fluid (low density) moves to cold fluid (high density). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convection current: the movement of a fluid caused by density differences. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Demo – Convection Currents <ul><li>Make a sketch of the convection current: </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Radiation: the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves that carry radiant energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat radiation = infrared radiation . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Feeling warm when standing next to a campfire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar radiation: the transfer of radiant energy from the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s energy sources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar radiation - visible light, infrared radiation, and other types of radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual thermal energy from when the Earth was formed is slowly released </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay of underground radioactive elements  produces energy </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Homework for next class: <ul><li>Complete “Thermal energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy” worksheet (p. 181 in BC Science 10 workbook) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete “Thermal energy transfer” worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>(p. 182 in BC Science 10 workbook) </li></ul><ul><li>Read over class notes and check out the class blog: </li></ul><ul><li>Have a great weekend! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Works Cited <ul><li>Images taken from the following sources: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>