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Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4  -  Natural Causes of Climate Change
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Sci 10 Lesson 1 May 4 - Natural Causes of Climate Change

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  • 1. Homework from last class: <ul><li>Complete Chapter 10 review worksheets </li></ul><ul><li>Study for Chapter 10 Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Bring May 12 th Playland field trip forms and money ASAP! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due date to bring in forms and money is Monday, May 9th </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read over class notes and check out the class blog: http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/ </li></ul>
  • 2. Chapter 10 Quiz <ul><li>You will have ~15 minutes to write the quiz. </li></ul><ul><li>Please write your multiple choice answers at the top of the test in the space provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Good luck! </li></ul>
  • 3. Natural Causes of Climate Change Chapter 11.1 pp. 464-480 Chapter 11.1 pp. 464-480
  • 4. Climate <ul><li>Climate: the average conditions of a region over ≥ 30 years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes clouds, precipitation, average temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, and wind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The size of a region can range from small (ex. an island) to large (ex. the entire planet). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate and geography combine to allow specific organisms to grow </li></ul></ul></ul>pp. 464 - 465 <ul><ul><ul><li>Biogeoclimatic zone: a region with distinct plants, soil, geography, and climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: BC has 14 distinct biogeoclimatic zones. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. Past and Current Climate <ul><li>Paleoclimatologists: people who study climates of the geological past </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils  show what kind of environment was present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tree rings  show evidence of growing seasons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>River sediments  reveal types of rainfall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ice cores  show past air condition and composition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gases trapped in the ice, specifically CO 2 , </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reveal long-term atmospheric levels. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils and sediment evidence show Earth’s climate has often changed drastically in the past. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: 21 000 years ago, most of Canada and northern Europe was under glaciers. </li></ul></ul></ul>pp. 466 - 467
  • 6. <ul><li>Ice core data reveal CO 2 levels for the past 650 000 years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists have also tested levels of CO 2 in the atmospheric air for the past 50 years. </li></ul></ul>pp. 466 - 467
  • 7. Factors That Influence Climate: <ul><li>1) Composition of the Earth’s Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Earth is a closed system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System: a group of parts that function together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very little energy (except radiant energy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enters or leaves the system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s atmosphere is the outer boundary. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse: a closed system that absorbs thermal energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural greenhouse effect: absorption of thermal energy by the atmosphere; allows for a narrow range of temperatures on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases: gases in Earth’s atmosphere that absorb and trap radiation as thermal energy (ex: CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more greenhouse gases, the higher the temperature of our atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul>p. 468
  • 8. <ul><li>2) Earth’s Tilt, Rotation, and Orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s tilt is responsible for seasons in northern hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer - tilted toward the Sun , decreasing angle of incidence . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter - tilted away from the Sun , solar radiation has a large angle of incidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s tilt: ~22.3º - 24.5º </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The greater the tilt, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the more extremes in climate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth also “wobbles” as it rotates on its axis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis changes  changes angle of incidence of solar radiation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth’s revolution around the Sun is elliptical, not circular. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation in the Earth’s orbit changes its distance from the Sun. </li></ul></ul>p. 468 - 470
  • 9. <ul><li>3) The Water Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Water cycle: system of water circulation on, above, and below Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of all greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is water vapour . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When temperature increases, more water evaporates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two effects of increased water vapour in the atmosphere: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1) More solar energy may be absorbed by this greenhouse gas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) More solar energy may be reflected back out to space and never reach Earth. </li></ul></ul>p. 471 The water cycle stores and transfers large amounts of thermal energy.
  • 10. <ul><li>4) Ocean Currents </li></ul><ul><li>Convection currents in oceans move large amounts of thermal energy all around Earth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep ocean currents (≥ 200 m) flow based on density differences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They behave like massive convection currents, with warm water rising in the tropics and cold water from the higher latitudes replacing it. </li></ul></ul></ul>pp. 471 - 473 Deep-ocean currents move cold, salty water below the surface and warm, less-salty water near the surface.
  • 11. <ul><li>Salinity of water also changes density. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water (found at the poles) is more dense than warm water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salty water (found at the poles) is more dense than fresh water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large changes in ocean water density can reverse current direction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surface currents (0 - 200 m) are warmed by from solar radiation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upwelling occurs when cold, deep water rises into surface currents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La Niña is an example of upwelling. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La Niña: cool water comes to the surface of the Pacific Ocean; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>causes warm winters in southeastern North America , and cool winters in the northwest . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>El Niño is the reverse. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>El Niño: warmer water on the surface of the Pacific Ocean results in warm winters in the Pacific Northwest and in eastern Canada. </li></ul></ul></ul>pp. 471 - 473
  • 12. <ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon cycle: maintains a balance of CO 2 in the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon sinks: a body or process that removes CO 2 from the atmosphere and stores it. (Ex: plants, ocean, forests) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon sources: a body or process that releases CO 2 into the atmosphere . (Ex. rock weathering, burning fossil fuels or trees) </li></ul></ul></ul>pp. 473 - 474 <ul><li>5) The Carbon Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide is a very important greenhouse gas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More CO 2 molecules than any other greenhouse gas (except H 2 O). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 traps infrared radiation from Earth’s surface, allows the average temperature of Earth to stay above freezing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>6) Catastrophic Events </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic event: large-scale disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale disasters can quickly change atmospheric conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erupting volcanoes release ash and molten rock that absorb radiation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Released water vapour and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) form sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 )  reflects solar radiation back into space. </li></ul></ul></ul>p. 475 <ul><ul><li>Meteorites and comets are thought to cause dramatic changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add dust, debris and gases in the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be responsible for some of Earth’s largest extinction events. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debris reflects and absorbs radiation, causing the atmosphere below to cool. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 14. Homework for next class: <ul><li>Complete Check Your Understanding questions on p. 481 </li></ul><ul><li>#s 1-8, 10, 12-15 </li></ul><ul><li>Bring May 12 th Playland field trip forms and money ASAP! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due date to bring in forms and money is Monday, May 9th </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read over class notes and check out the class blog: http://msoonscience.blogspot.com/ </li></ul>
  • 15. Works Cited <ul><li>Images taken from the following sources: </li></ul><ul><li>http://blog.2012pro.com/predictions/polar-ice-is-melting-at-an-accelerated-pace </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/mike_smiths_flickr/2446977716/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_krembsdeming.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.stelr.org.au/carbon-cycle/ </li></ul><ul><li>P ower Point Credit: </li></ul><ul><li>McGraw Hill Ryerson, 2007. </li></ul>

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