EclipseCon 2010 tutorial: Understanding git at Eclipse
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EclipseCon 2010 tutorial: Understanding git at Eclipse

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EclipseCon 2010 tutorial

EclipseCon 2010 tutorial

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EclipseCon 2010 tutorial: Understanding git at Eclipse EclipseCon 2010 tutorial: Understanding git at Eclipse Presentation Transcript

  • Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse Chris Aniszczyk (Red Hat) Shawn Pearce (Google) Robin Rosenberg (Dewire) Matthias Sohn (SAP) Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Outline Introduction Git Concepts Git Exercises Installing Git and EGit Setting Up a Repository Making Changes Browsing History Branching & Merging Rebasing Collaborating Reviewing and Maintaining Tagging Conclusion 2 Understanding Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by Chris Aniszczyk, Shawn Pearce and Matthias Sohn, made available under the EPL v1.0
  • Here's the Deal All of us want to see Git successful at Eclipse Git like any other DVCS has a bit of a learning curve This tutorial is made up of a brief introduction followed by some exercises on using Git, EGit and Gerrit Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • No Free Lunch The best way to learn Git is to use Git Please stop and ask us questions at anytime Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • A History Lesson 2005 Linus Torvalds starts Git 2006 Proof-of-concept, quite unusable 2007 Index reader, quickdiff 2008 Add history view, commit, push/fetch 2009 Moved to Eclipse.org 2010 Automatic IP Logs Diff/Merge Cleanup API Exit Incubation Release 1.0 Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Git Concepts We need the basics
  • What is Git? Distributed Version Control System (DVCS) Originally created for the Linux Kernel If you want comedy, watch Linus' talk at Google http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4XpnKHJAok8 Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Centralized VCS Examples? CVS and SVN There is one Master repository where code is shared Everyone checks out their code (or branch) from that repository, and checks changes back in Two major problems You need to be on-line to perform actions Patches go stale They suck Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Distributed VCS Examples? Git and Hg Each user has a full local copy of the repository Forks happen, deal with it There is no real master repository like in a CVCS Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • How does it work? A DVCS operates at the level of a changeset Logically, a repository is made up from an initial empty state, followed by many changesets Changesets are identified by a SHA-1 hash value e.g., 0878a8189e6a3ae1ded86d9e9c7cbe3f Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • It's all about the changesets Changesets contain pointers to the previous changeset previous: 48b2179994d494485b79504e8b5a6b23ce24a026 --- a/README.txt +++ b/README.txt @@ -1 +1 @@ -SVN is great +Git is great previous: 8cafc7ecd01d86977d2af254fc400cee --- a/README.txt +++ b/README.txt @@ -1 +1 @@ -Git is great +SVN is great Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Branches The current version of your repository is simply a pointer to the end of the tree The default "trunk" in Git is called "master" The tip of the current branch is called "HEAD" Any branch can be referred to by its hash id Creating branches in a DVCS is fast, you simply point to a different element in the tree on disk already Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Merging DVCSs are all about merging Given that each node in the changeset tree contains a pointer to its previous node (and transitively, to the beginning of time), it's much more powerful than the standard flat CVCS diff. In other words, not only do you know what changes need to be made, but also what point in history they need to be made . So, if you have a changeset which renames a file, and then merge in a changeset which points to the file as it was before it was renamed, then a CVCS will just fall over; but a DVCS will be able to apply the change before the rename occurred, and then play forward the changes. Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Merging Merges are just the weaving together of two (or more) local branches into one However, unlike CVCS, you don't have to specify anything about where you're merging from and to; the trees automatically know what their split point was in the past, and can work it out from there. Merging is much easier in a DVCS like Git Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Pulling and Pushing We've not talked about the distributed nature of DVCS Changes flow between repositories by push and pull Since a DVCS tree is merely a pointer to a branch... There's three cases to consider for comparing two trees: Your tip is an ancestor of my tip My tip is an ancestor of your tip Neither of our tips are direct ancestors; however, we both share a common ancestor Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Cloning and Remotes git clone git://egit.eclipse.org/egit.git Where you can push or pull to is configured on a per (local) repository basis git remote add github http://github.com/zx/myegit. git origin is the default remote; you can have many remotes Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Git Internals Cryptographic signatures ... ensures data integrity Snapshot based ... saves whole project Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Git Internals Cryptographic signatures ... ensures data integrity Snapshot based ... saves whole project History stored as graph ... accurate records Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Exercises You're armed with the basics now
  • Exercise - Installing Git and EGit Git installation packages: http://git-scm.com/download Pre-packaged with most Linux distributions as git-core EGit update site: http://download.eclipse.org/egit/updates Requires Eclipse 3.4 or later => get packages from the USB stick and install them Introduce yourself to git : $ git config --global user.name "Joe Developer" $ git config --global user.email joe.dev@example.com
  • Documentation List of documentation http://git-scm.com/documentation Reference http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/ Git Cheat Sheet http://git.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/GitCheatSheet EGit User Guide http://wiki.eclipse.org/EGit/User_Guide EGit Eclipse Help Help > Help Contents > EGit User Guide EGit Contributor Guide http://wiki.eclipse.org/EGit/Contributor_Guide Git for committers http://wiki.eclipse.org/Git_for_Committers Git for Eclipse users http://wiki.eclipse.org/EGit/Git_For_Eclipse_Users From git command line: $ git help <command>
  • Exercise - Setting up a repository (git) Initialize a fresh repository starting from your favorite project (or create a new one) $ cd project $ git init Initialized empty Git repository in .git Add a snapshot of the working tree to the index (temporary staging area) $ git add . Persist the contents of the index into the repository: $ git commit This will prompt you for a commit message. You just stored the first version of your project in the repository.
  • Exercise - Setting up a repository (EGit) Initialize a fresh repository starting from your favorite Eclipse project In package explorer select the project(s) you want to version Note: if you select multiple projects they must all reside under a common folder Team > Share Project > Git, click "Next" Select the project(s) to be shared Click "Create Repository", then "Finish" Team > Add to Version Control adds the selected files to the index Team > Commit opens the commit dialog prompting for a commit message Click "Commit" You just stored the first version of your project in the repository.
  • Exercise - Making Changes (git) Modify or add some files ... and stage them for commit $ git add file1 file2 to get a brief summary of the situation run $ git status # On branch master # Changes to be committed: # (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage) # # modified: file1 # modified: file2 to compare working tree and index run $ git diff to compare index and last commit run $ git diff --cached then commit all staged changes $ git commit
  • Exercise - Making Changes (EGit) Modify or add some files ... and stage them for commit Team > Add to Version Control adds the selected files to the index Resources are decorated according to their state following these preferences: Team > Git > Label Decorations General > Appearance > Colors and Fonts > Git To compare working tree and index select Compare with > Git Index on modified resources Team > Commit and provide a commit message describing your change
  • Exercise - Browsing History (git) Inspect the history using $ git log if you also want to see the diffs use $ git log -p for an overview use $ git log --stat --summary if you prefer a graphical display of the history run $ gitk or to display all branches $ gitk --all
  • Exercise - Browsing History (EGit) Inspect the history by selecting Team > Show in Resource History from the context menu Using the toggle buttons of the history view you may adapt its filtering behavior to your needs. Select a commit to see what changes it introduced. Comparing file revisions Select a file in the package explorer ... ... and select a commit from the commit log pane then select Compare with working tree from the context menu ... or select two commits you want to compare then select Compare with each other from the context menu.
  • Exercise - Branching (git) - 1 Branches are used heavily with git to isolate development on different topics from each other. To create a new branch to e.g. implement a new feature run $ git branch newfeature list all branches( the currently checked out branch is marked with * ) $ git branch newfeature * master check out this branch to your working tree $ git checkout newfeature then do some changes and commit them $ git checkout -b newfeature is a shortcut combining both these steps in one go
  • Exercise - Branching (git) -2 Switch back to the master branch $ git checkout master do some different changes on the master branch and commit them. At this point the two branches have diverged with different changes in each. To merge the feature into the master branch run (from the master branch) $ git merge newfeature In case of conflicts markers are inserted into the conflicting files this can be shown with $ git diff edit the files with conflicts to resolve the conflicts and commit the resolving changes. Inspect the resulting version history using $ gitk Then delete the feature branch $ git branch -d newfeature
  • Exercise - Branching (EGit) Repeat the previous exercise in EGit, use the following context menu on your Eclipse project Team > Branch to create branches and to switch between different branches. Merging is not yet available in EGit (we are working on it) hence for now use C git for merging.
  • Exercise - SSH Configuration SSH Keys check if your ~/.ssh already contains SSH keys, if not run (use your email) $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "joe@example.com" id_rsa is the default private key, id_rsa.pub is the default public key choose a good pass phrase to protect your key In Eclipse check that you point at the right keys (you may also generate them from here) Preferences > General > Network Connections > SSH2
  • Gerrit Registration To demonstrate collaboration using git and Gerrit we invite you to play contributor on the simple RCP mail example Follow registration instructions in EGit contributor guide Add a remote for the review server Start Eclipse 3.5 or 3.6 The workflow we cover in this tutorial is the exact workflow that you would use if you wanted to contribute to the EGit and JGit projects
  • Exercise - Collaborating (git) Clone a remote upstream repository cd to your Eclipse workspace via anonymous git: protocol $ git clone git://egit.eclipse.org/Mail.git via filesystem $ git clone file:///copied/from/usb-stick/Mail.git via ssh $ git clone ssh://[<user@>]egit.eclipse.org:29418/Mail.git import projects into Eclipse Import > Existing Projects create a new local topic branch topic refresh projects in Eclipse & start editing commit change to local topic branch
  • Exercise - Collaborating (git) - 2 push your change back (from local topic branch to Gerrit) $ git push review this pushes back all changes which are on the current branch but not in remote master Go to Gerrit and review the change you just uploaded http://egit.eclipse.org/r/#mine
  • EMail based collaboration create patch file (for last commit) $ git format-patch -1 ... attach patch file to Bugzilla ... or send it to mailing list for review ... or directly to another developer ... as receiver apply patch file to another repository $ git am <patch-file> check that the patch has been applied to your current branch $ git log -p Generating patch for attachment to Bugzilla
  • Exercise - Collaborating (EGit) Clone a remote upstream repository (this time egit) Import > Git > Git Repository, click Next URL via anonymous git: protocol git://egit.eclipse.org/egit.git via filesystem file:///copied/from/usb-stick/egit.git via ssh ssh://[<user@>]egit.eclipse.org:29418/egit.git create a new local topic branch topic start doing changes and commit them to the local branch
  • Exercise - Collaborating (EGit) - 2 push your changes back (from local topic branch to remote Gerrit) Team > Push To Select Configured Remote Repository > origin click Next Source Ref: refs/heads/topic Target Ref: refs/for/master click Add Spec click Next, click Finish
  • Staying up to date pull new upstream changes from remote master branch to current local branch $ git pull [origin] In two steps $ git fetch origin $ git merge origin/master pull new upstream changes from remote stable-0.7 to local my-0.7 $ git pull origin stable-0.7:my-0.7 pull is fetch + merge and may lead to conflicts EGit: fetch is available from Team > Fetch from... select origin as Configured Remote Repository Source Ref: refs/heads/* Target Ref: refs/remotes/origin/* Finish
  • Rebase Rewrite your project history! You want to base your work on the latest version Upstream changed while you work You haven't published yet Solution: Reapply every change onto the latest upstream. Rebase automates this on the branch you want to rebase onto latest upstream run $ git fetch [origin] $ git rebase origin/master Rebase may lead to conflicts
  • Rebasing (interactive) A tool for cleaning up history before sharing your version - change something a - change something else b - oops, not so good, fix a - changed my mind about b - Shawn didn't like some piece of a rebase into - Change something a - Change something else b Start with the last commit you want to retain as-is: git rebase -i <after-this-commit> then follow section "Interactive Mode" of git-rebase reference Now other people can understand your work better
  • Reviewing and Maintaining Gerrit workflow git push Eclipse review via Bugzilla format patch Upload as attachment Linux kernel process via mailing list send a patch via mail to your neighbor, he applies it to his repo and vice versa Inline patches and comments: > if ( foo <= size) { You should use strictly less than here
  • Tagging List tags $ git tag -l Make lightweight tag $ git tag v1.0 Make unsigned annotated tag, prompts for tag message $ git tag -a v1.0 Make a GPG-signed tag, using the default e-mail address's key $ git tag -s v1.0 Delete tag $ git tag -d v1.0
  • Conclusion Do we love Git yet?
  • Conclusion DVCS like Git are powerful Git supports convenient branching and merging Git is very fast and scales well Gerrit enables a nice code review workflow Git is the future SCM of Eclipse Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn
  • Resources Ask questions on the EGit/JGit forums http://git-scm.com/documentation is your friend Read the Pro Git book - http://progit.org/book/ Understanding and Using Git at Eclipse | © 2010 by C. Aniszczyk, S. Pearce, R. Rosenberg and M. Sohn