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  • Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Self-portrait as a Soldier . 1915. 27-1/4" × 24”.
  • Map: The Western Front, 1914-18.
  • Map: World War I, 1914-18.
  • John Singer Sargent. Gassed . An oil study. 1918-19. 7-1/2' × 20’.
  • What were the effects of trench warfare on the European imagination? The realities of trench warfare along the Western Front in northeast France and northwest Germany had an immense impact on the Western imagination. The almost unbounded optimism that preceded the war was replaced by a sense of the absurdity of modern life, the fragmentation of experience, and the futility of even daring to hope. How does Wilfred Owens’s “The Pity of War” reflect these feelings? What about William Butler Yeats’s poetry? Among the most powerful realizations of this condition is T. S. Eliot’s poem The Waste Land . How does it depict modern love?
  • What is Dada? Many found the war incomprehensible, and they reacted by creating an art movement based on negation and meaninglessness: Dada. What beliefs did Dada’s sound poetry reflect? What role did chance operations play in their work? One of their most influential spokesmen, Marcel Duchamp, turned found objects into works of art, including the urinal Fountain , which he called ready-mades. What are ready-mades? How did the Dadaists use the technique of photomontage? Dada, finally, was an art of provocation, but in its very energy, it posited that the forces of creativity might survive.
  • Hans (Jean) Arp. Fleur Manteau (Flower Hammer) . 1916. 24-3/8" × 19-5/8”.
  • Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 . 1912. 58" × 35”.
  • Marcel Duchamp. Fountain . Replica of 1917 original made in 1963. 1917; 1963. Height: 14”.
  • Marcel Duchamp. Mona Lisa (L.H.O.O.Q) . Rectified Readymade: reproduction of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa altered with pencil. 1919.
  • Raoul Hausmann. The Art Critic . 1919-20. 12-1/2" × 10”.
  • How did the arts respond to the Russian Revolution? In Russia, political upheaval offered the promise of a new and better life. Led by Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik party envisioned an ideal utopian state in which society does away with government and life is lived upon the principle “From each according to his ability: to each according to his needs.” In the arts, Kasimir Malevich pursued an art he called Suprematism. What is Suprematism? How are its principles reflected in his Black Square ? Soon Malevich sought to apply these principles in more practical ways that might serve a social purpose—Constructivism, he called it. In film, Sergei Eisenstein’s new montage techniques were created to attract a largely illiterate audience through fast-paced editing and composition. What is montage?
  • Kasimir Malevich. Painterly Realism: Boy with Knapsack - Color Masses in the Fourth Dimension. 1915. 28" × 17-1/2”.
  • Kasimir Malevich. View of Malevich's works hanging in “0,10: The Last Futurist Exhibition of Painting,” Petrograd, 1915. 1915.
  • El Lissitzsky. Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge . 1919.
  • How does Freudian psychology manifest itself in the Surrealist art movement? The era after the war was especially influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud, whose psychoanalytic techniques, especially that of free association, were employed to treat victims of shell shock. What is free association and what theories did Freud develop based on it? After the war, in Beyond the Pleasure Principle , he added to his theories the idea that humans might be equally driven by a death drive that begins to explain self-destructive and aggressive human behaviors, including war. Almost as influential as Freud was his colleague Carl Jung, who believed that the unconscious life of the individual was founded on a deeper, more universal layer of the psyche, which he called the collective unconscious. How does the collective unconscious manifest itself? In the arts, the discoveries of Freud and Jung manifested themselves in the Surrealist projects of André Breton and his colleagues. How did Breton define Surrealism? Breton reproduced the work of Max Ernst in the journals that he published. He recruited Picasso to the movement, as well as Picasso’s Spanish colleague Joan Miró. Miró in turn introduced Salvador Dalí to the movement. All of these artists, including sculptors like Alberto Giacometti and Meret Oppenheim, openly pursued the undercurrent of Freudian sexual desire that they believed lay at the root of their creative activity.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, "Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • Max Ernst. The Master’s Bedroom, It’s Worth Spending a Night There (Letter from Katherine S. Dreyer to Max Ernst, May 25, 1920 ) . 1920. 6-3/8" × 8-5/8”.
  • Joan Miró. The Birth of the World . 1925. 8’ 2-3/4" × 6’ 6-3/4”.
  • Pablo Picasso. Girl before a Mirror . 1932. 64" × 51-1/4”.
  • Salvador Dali. The Lugubrious Game . 1929. 17-1/2" × 12”.
  • Salvador Dali. The Persistence of Memory . 1931. 9-1/2" × 13”.
  • Alberto Giacometti. Suspended Ball . 1930-31. 24" × 14-1/2" × 14”.
  • Meret Oppenheim. Object (Le Déjeuner en fourrure) . 1931. Overall height: 2-3/8"; cup diameter: 4-3/4"; saucer diameter: 9-3/8"; spoon length: 8”.
  • What is the stream-of-consciousness style of writing? After the war, writers struggled to find a way to express themselves authentically in a language that the war had seemed to have left impoverished. The life of the unconscious was the subject of the stream-of-consciousness novel that rose to prominence in the same era, including James Joyce’s Ulysses , Virginia Woolf ’s Mrs. Dalloway , and Marcel Proust’s À la recherche du temps perdu . What are the attractions of the stream of-consciousness style?
  • James Joyce. Sylvia Beach and James Joyce reading reviews of Ulysses. 1922.
  • Jacob Lawrence. Continuity & Change: Harlem and the Great Migration: The Migration of the Negro, Panel no. 60: And the migrants kept coming. 1940-41. 18" × 12”.

Transcript

  • 1. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Self-portrait as a Soldier. 1915.27-1/4" × 24”.
  • 2. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Map: The Western Front, 1914-18.
  • 3. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Map: World War I, 1914-18.
  • 4. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.John Singer Sargent. Gassed. An oil study. 1918-19.7-1/2 × 20’.
  • 5. Trench Warfare and the Literary ImaginationWhat were the effects of trench warfare on the Europeanimagination?• Wilfred Owen: “The Pity of War” — Owen’s poems drewimmediate attention for his horrifying descriptions of the war’s victims.His intent is that the reader should share his horrific dreams.• In the Trenches: Remarque’s All Quiet on the WesternFront — The horror of trench warfare is probably nowhere morethoroughly detailed than in Remarque’s book. It sold more than amillion copies in Germany the first year of its publication in 1928.
  • 6. • William Butler Yeats and the Specter of Collapse — Yeatsmoved beyond the Symbolist movement and imagined a much darkerworld. The specter of life in the new postwar era is insentient, pitiless,and nightmarish.• T.S. Eliot: The Landscape of Desolation — Eliot’s poetryreflects both the erudition of a scholar and the depression of aclassicist. In the Waste Land he describes a world turned upside down,a landscape of complete emotional and physical aridity.• Discussion Question: How did the experience of World War I affectattitudes about patriotism and heroism?
  • 7. Escape From Despair: Dada in the CapitalsWhat is Dada?• Dada was an international signifier of negation. It did not meananything, just as, in face of war, life itself had come to seemmeaningless. Dada came into being in Zurich, founded by a group ofintellectuals and artists escaping the conflict in neutral Switzerland.Key figures in the movement are Hans Arp, Marcel Duchamp, andRaoul Hausmann.• Discussion Question: Why do the Dadaists reject language?
  • 8. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Hans (Jean) Arp. Fleur Manteau (Flower Hammer). 1916.24-3/8" × 19-5/8”.
  • 9. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2. 1912.58" × 35”.
  • 10. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Marcel Duchamp. Fountain. Replica of 1917 original made in 1963. 1917;1963.Height: 14”.
  • 11.  Video: Marcel Duchamp’s FountainMyArtsLabChapter 35 – The Great War and Its Impact
  • 12. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Marcel Duchamp. Mona Lisa (L.H.O.O.Q). Rectified Readymade:reproduction of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa altered with pencil. 1919.
  • 13. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Raoul Hausmann. The Art Critic. 1919-20.12-1/2" × 10”.
  • 14. Russia: Art and RevolutionHow did the arts respond to the Russian Revolution?• Vladimir Lenin and the Soviet State — Lenin headed the mostradical of Russian postrevolutionary groups, the Bolsheviks. He was autopian idealist. But when his party did not succeed in free elections,he dissolved the government and created the Politburo• The Arts of the Revolution — Prior to the Revolution, avant-gardeRussian artists established their own brand of modern art. KasimirMalevich created Cubo-Futurism and then became engaged inSuprematism. After the revolution Malevich was inspired by ElLissitzsky and his piece, Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge, notingthat Suprematism should adopt a more “Constructive” approach toreorganizing the world. Sergei Eisenstein was a revolutionaryfilmmaker who created The Battleship Potemkin. Lev Kuleshovdeveloped a theory of montage.
  • 15. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Kasimir Malevich. Painterly Realism: Boy with Knapsack - Color Masses inthe Fourth Dimension. 1915.28" × 17-1/2”.
  • 16. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Kasimir Malevich. View of Malevichs works hanging in “0,10: The LastFuturist Exhibition of Painting,” Petrograd, 1915. 1915.
  • 17. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.El Lissitzsky. Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge. 1919.
  • 18. Freud, Jung, and the Art of the UnconsciousHow does Freudian psychology manifest itself in the Surrealist artmovement?• Freud’s Civilization and Its Discontents— In this book, Freudwrote that the greatest impediment to human happiness wasaggression.• The Jungian Archetype— Jung believed that the unconscious lifeof the individual was founded on the collective unconscious, the innate,inherited contents of the human mind. It manifests itself in the form ofarchetypes, those patterns of thought that recur throughout history andacross cultures, in the form of dreams, myths, and the fairy tales.
  • 19. • The Dreamwork of Surrealism — Andre Breton published theSurrealist Manifesto and credited Freud with encouraging his owncreative endeavors. Max Ernst’s, The Master’s Bedroom, Its’ WorthSpending a Night There is the first Surrealist work in the visual arts.Picasso’s Girl Before a Mirror addresses Surrealism’s most basictheme – the self in all its complexity. A sense of self-alienation iscentral to the work of Salvador Dali. Among the first paintings executedunder the influence of the Surrealists is The Lugubrious Game. A pieceby Alberto Giacometti, Suspended Ball, is the work that caused theSurrealists to take serious interest in the possibilities of a Surrealistsculptural project.• Discussion Question: What is Freud’s basic thesis in Civilization and ItsDiscontents?
  • 20. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 21. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 22. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 23. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 24. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 25. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 26. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 27. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 28. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 29. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 30. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Sergei Eisenstein. Closer Look: Eisensteins The Battleship Potemkin,"Odessa Steps Sequence.” 1925.
  • 31. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Max Ernst. The Master’s Bedroom, It’s Worth Spending a Night There(Letter from Katherine S. Dreyer to Max Ernst, May 25, 1920). 1920.6-3/8" × 8-5/8”.
  • 32. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Joan Miró. The Birth of the World. 1925.8’ 2-3/4" × 6’ 6-3/4”.
  • 33. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Pablo Picasso. Girl before a Mirror. 1932.64" × 51-1/4”.
  • 34. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Salvador Dali. The Lugubrious Game. 1929.17-1/2" × 12”.
  • 35. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Salvador Dali. The Persistence of Memory. 1931.9-1/2" × 13”.
  • 36.  Closer Look: Salvador Dali, The Persistenceof MemoryMyArtsLabChapter 35 – The Great War and Its Impact
  • 37. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Alberto Giacometti. Suspended Ball. 1930-31.24" × 14-1/2" × 14”.
  • 38. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Meret Oppenheim. Object (Le Déjeuner en fourrure). 1931.Overall height: 2-3/8"; cup diameter: 4-3/4"; saucer diameter: 9-3/8"; spoonlength: 8”.
  • 39. Experimentation and the Literary Life:The Stream-of-Consciousness NovelWhat is the stream-of-consciousness style of writing?• Joyce, Ulysses, and Sylvia Beach — No writer was moreinfluential in introducing the stream-of-consciousness narrative thanJames Joyce and no novel better demonstrates its powers than hisUlysses. Banned in both Britain and the United States, Sylvia Beachagreed to publish Ulysses in an edition of 1, 000.• Virginia Woolf: In the Mind of Mrs. Dalloway — Woolf arguedthat women could realize their full potential only if they achieved bothfinancial and psychological independence from men. Mrs. Dalloway isWoolf’s effort to examine for herself “an ordinary day” of a decidedlydifferent character from those in Ulysses.• Marcel Proust and the Novel of Memory — It was Proust whofirst imagined the novel as a mental space. Remembrance of ThingsPast shows that it is the book and the acts of memory that it restores tothe present—and hence to the future--that time, in all its flux is finally“regained.”
  • 40. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.James Joyce. Sylvia Beach and James Joyce reading reviews of Ulysses.1922.
  • 41. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Jacob Lawrence. Continuity & Change: Harlem and the Great Migration:The Migration of the Negro, Panel no. 60: And the migrants kept coming.1940-41.18" × 12”.