Pablo Picasso’s Paris: At the Heart of the ModernWhat are Cubism, Fauvism, and Futurism?• The Aggressive new Modern Art: Les Demoisellesd’Avignon — Picasso’s work shows a shift in painting from an opticalart to an imaginative construct, from the literal to the conceptual. LesDemoiselles was an act of liberation, an exorcism of past traditions,perhaps of painting itself.• Matisse and the Fauves: A New Color –- The artist was theleader of a radical group of experimental pointers known as the Fauves,or “Wild Beats.” Fauvism was known for it’s radical application ofarbitrary, or unnatural, color.• The Invention of Cubism: Braque’s Partnership withPicasso — Braque was a Fauve but with Houses at l’Estaque heintroduced spatial ambiguity and cube-like shapes which fascinatedPicasso. Cubism was born out of their collaboration.
• Futurism: The Cult of Speed — Futurism rejected the political andartistic traditions of the past and called for a new art. The Futuristsrepudiated static art and sought to render what they thought of as thedefining characteristic of modern urban life – speed.• Modernist Music and Dance: Stravinsky and the BalletsRusses — The dynamism and invention evident in both Cubism andFuturism also appeared in music and dance. The composer Stravinskyand choreographer Nijinsky premiered the ballet Le Sacre deprintemps; the performance was a scandal. This piece helped to definemodern art as antagonistic to public opinion and an affront to its values.• Discussion Question: What is the importance of speed in the early 20thcentury?
The Expressionist Movement: Modernism inGermany and AustriaWhat is German Expressionism?• Die Brucke: The Art of Deliberate Crudeness — Four artistsfrom Dresden called themselves Die Brucke. They believed thatthrough jarring contrasts of color and jagged, linear compositions theycould free the imagination from the chains that enslaved it.• Der Blaue Reiter: The Spirituality of Color — This expressionistgroup had no common style but all were obsessed with color. For theartist Franz Marc, the color blue is the masculine principle of spirituality.For Munter, yellow was the female principle.• A Diversity of Sound: Schoenberg’s New Atonal Musicversus Puccini’s Lyricism — Schoenberg abandoned tonality andcreated a music of complete atonality. In contrast, Puccini wrote operasof emotional lyricism such as Madama Butterfly and Tosca.• Discussion Question: What are the differences between Schoenbergand Puccini?
Early Twentieth-Century LiteratureWhat innovations distinguish the literary world in the first years ofthe twentieth century?• Guillaume Apollinaire and Cubist Poetics — A new approach topoetry and prose called the “revolution of the word,” was led byApollinaire. He latched on to the principle of collage. In “Lundi, rueChristine” he offers snatches of overheard conversation that follow oneanother without transition or thematic connection.• Ezra Pound and the Imagists — The Imagists were a group ofEnglish and American poets who sought to create precise images inclear, sharp language. Pound’s “In a Station of the Metro” is in manyways the classic Imagist poem.
Active Listening Guide: Schoenberg:"Madonna" from Pierrot LunaireMyArtsLabChapter 34 – The Era of Invention: Paris and the Modern World
Active Listening Guide: Puccini: "Un bel di"from Madama ButterflyMyArtsLabChapter 34 – The Era of Invention: Paris and the Modern World
The Origins of CinemaWhat are the origins of cinema?• The Lumiere Brothers’ Celluloid Film Movie Projector — InParis, these brothers presented the first projected motion picturesavailable to a large audience. Their 10 films were projected throughtheir Cinematographe camera.• The Nickelodeon: Movies for the Masses — Nickelodeontheaters were very popular by 1910. They catered to the aspirations ofthe working class, and most often to women and children. These silentfilms were particularly accessible to working-class, immigrantaudiences.
• D.W. Griffith and Cinematic Space — Griffith was the foremostsingle-reel director of the day. His 13-reel epic The Birth of a Nationwas about the Civil War and Reconstruction but its unrepentant racismled to riots. This film nonetheless demonstrated the viability of whatcame to be called the feature film. An even more important aspect ofthe film was the large repertoire of camera shots that Griffith used tocreate visual variety in a film of such length.• Discussion Question: In what way did the development of cinemainfluence the visual arts?