The Native American in Myth and RealityHow did territorial expansion affect Native Americans in North America?• The Indian Removal Act — At the request of President AndrewJackson, Congress passed “An Act to provide for an exchange of landswith the Indians residing in any of the states or territories, and for theirremoval west of the river Mississippi.” Native peoples were forced tomarch across the country a trek that would become known as the Trailof Tears.• Recording Native Americans: Catlin’s EthnographicEnterprise — George Catlin’s contribution to Native-Americanethnography, is indisputable. He recorded the costumes and practicesof more than 40 different tribes in 470 portraits an portrayals of dailylife.• Huron Moccasins: The Influence of European Styles onNative-American Art — The impact of European contact on NativeAmerican arts can be seen in objects made by the tribal peoples, suchas moccasins.
• Plains Narrative Painting: Picturing Personal History andChange — The Native Americans of the Great Plains developed astrong sense of history. They recorded their history as a narrative inimages on buffalo-hide robes, the exterior hides of teepees, shields,and muslin cloths.• Women’s Art on the Plains: Quillwork and Beadwork — Theartworkof women was greatly respected in the Plains and Intermountain tribalcultures. The two main art forms practiced by women were quillworkand beadwork. Quillwork was considered a sacred art.• Weaving and Basketry — Among the Navajo, weaving, basketry,and pottery are practiced today very much as they were in pre-colonialtimes. Weaving is a sacred activity that stretches back to creationitself.
• The End of an Era — The ultimate fate of Plains tribes wasinextricably linked to the fate of the buffalo. A new circle dance, theGhost Dance, seemed to promise salvation for the tribes but that endedat Wounded Knee Creek.• Discussion Question: What is the significance of the mythic Westernlandscape?
Walt Whitman’s AmericaHow were the contradictions of economic expansion expressed byAmerican artists?• In the Interest of Liberty: An Era of Contradictions —Whitman’s essential optimism and belief in the egalitarian promise ofdemocracy was put to the test during Reconstruction. AfricanAmericans were losing their freedoms while a French gift to theAmerican people, Liberty Enlightening the World, was dedicated. TheTammany Society was founded for social purposes but now usedworking-class and immigrant votes to gain and keep power indefinitely.Under the leadership of Boss Tweed, City Hall became known asTammany Hall. Millions of American workers found themselves withoutjobs in the 1870s. Workers developed new forms of collective actionsuch as strikes and walkouts.
• The American Woman — In the post-Civil War years, womenbecame the public face of social reform as they led the suffragemovement, and the temperance movement. They assumed a growingrole in education and nursing. Individual achievements by EmilyDickenson and Kate Chopin are notable. Dickenson’s work ischaracterized by passion, simplicity, and an economy andconcentration of style. Chopin’s stories were praised for their attentionto local custom and dialect. No other writer of the era tried to describethe feelings a women experiences as she discovers her own sexualbeing and her own identity.• Discussion Question: Why was Kate Chopin’s Awakening a critical flop?
Ragtime and the Beginnings of JazzWhat is ragtime?• Jazz is characterized by a steady rhythm that plays off against arhythmic syncopation. To many puritanical Americans, the looserhythms of ragtime suggested loose morals, and the form was harshlycriticized.
The American AbroadWhat is an expatriate?• Henry James and the International Novel — James wasperhaps the best-traveled and most cosmopolitan American writer inthe nineteenth century. He often depicted the drama of Americaninnocence confronting European experience in his novels, such asPortrait of a Lady and The Ambassadors.• Painters Abroad: The Expatriate Vision — Whistler was anAmerican expatriate painter who valued art for art’s sake, for its beauty,not for its content. Sargent specialized in portraits of the aristocracyand the wealthy, and he was noted for his stylish, bravura brushwork.Mary Cassatt was a figure painter, concentrating almost exclusively onwomen in domestic and intimate settings.
Active Listening Guide: Joplin: Maple LeafRagMyArtsLabChapter 32 – The Course of Empire: Expansion and Conflict in America
Chicago and the Columbian Exposition of 1893What ideal of America was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition?• Louis Sullivan and the Chicago School of Architecture —Chicago was attractive as a venue for the Columbian Exposition due tothe sheer volume and impressiveness of its original, contemporaryarchitecture. After the great fire of 1871, there was a great need torebuild. A leading proponent of new methods of design was Sullivan,who coined the phrase, “Form ever follows function.”• Frederick Law Olmstead and the Invention of Suburbia —Olmstead and Calvert Vaux designed New York’s Central Park andmodeled it on the English garden. Olmstead later strove to create acommunal spirit by subdividing sites into small “village” areas linked bydrives and walks. This design for Riverside, Illinois set the standard forsuburban development.• Discussion Question: What does Sullivan mean by “form followsfunction”?