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Sayre2e ch31 integrated_lecture_pp_ts-150672

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  • Édouard Manet. The Barricade . ca. 1871. 18-1/4" × 12-3/4”.
  • Édouard Manet. The Execution of Maximilian . 1868-69. 99-1/4" × 120”.
  • Henri Fantin-Latour. A Studio in the Batignolles . Salon of 1870. 1870. 6’ 8-1/4" × 8’ 11-3/4”.
  • What is Impressionism? The renovation of Paris came to a temporary halt in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian war. Embarrassed by the failure of his imperial adventuring in Mexico, where his hand-picked leader was executed by revolutionaries, Louis-Napoleon entered into war with Prussia. He was soundly defeated by Otto von Bismarck and exiled to England. After Bismarck laid siege to Paris, which surrendered in January 1871, the newly declared Third Republic granted generous concessions to its citizens. In March, they created their own municipal government, the Commune. The National Assembly’s army attacked, and after a bloody week the Commune was crushed. In what ways was Impressionism borne out of this political climate? Many of these young artists who were identified as Impressionists preferred painting out-of-doors to capture the natural effects of light. What technological innovations made such an approach to painting possible? Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Degas, and Morisot were the founders of the group. Although he never exhibited with them, Manet was considered by many to be their leader. In what ways did Impressionism undercut conventional assumptions about the style and content of painting?
  • Claude Monet. The Regatta at Argenteuil . ca. 1872. 19" × 29-1/2”.
  • Claude Monet. Impression: Sunrise . 1873. 19-5/8" × 25-1/2”.
  • Claude Monet. Boulevard des Capucines . 1873. 24" × 31-1/2”.
  • Claude Monet. Grainstack (Snow Effect) . Also, Haystack . 1891. 25-3/4" × 36-3/8”.
  • Berthe Morisot. Summer's Day . 1879. 18" × 29-3/4”.
  • Camille Pissarro. Red Roofs , or The Orchard , Côtes Saint-Denis at Pontoise. 1877. 21-1/2" × 25-7/8”.
  • Auguste Renoir. Oarsmen at Chatou . 1879. 31-15/16" × 39-7/16”.
  • Edgar Degas. Dance Class . ca. 1874. 32-3/4" × 30-1/4”.
  • Auguste Renoir. Closer Look: Luncheon of the Boating Party . 1880-81. 51-1/4" × 69-1/8”.
  • Auguste Renoir. Closer Look: Luncheon of the Boating Party . 1880-81. 51-1/4" × 69-1/8”.
  • Gustave Caillebotte. The Floor-Scrapers . 1875. 40-1/8" × 57-1/2”.
  • Edgar Degas. Aux Ambassadeurs . 1877. 14-1/2" × 10-5/8”.
  • Édouard Manet. A Bar at the Folies-Bergère . 1881-82. 37-3/4" × 51-1/8”.
  • Jules Chéret. Aux Folies-Bergère . 1875.
  • How was Russian nationalism reflected in literature, art, and music? In Russia, Francophiles followed developments in Paris carefully, but Slavophiles rejected the pro-Western bias and those Westernizers who believed that Russia was hopelessly mired in the medieval past. Slavophiles tended to be nationalists and saw Russian culture and its spirituality (or “soul”) as essentially different from that of the West. How did Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s novel Crime and Punishment reflect the Russian soul? What was novelist Leo Tolstoy’s approach? In painting, a group of young Russian painters called the Travelers created highly realistic works that celebrated peasant life. In music, the nationalist spirit manifested itself in the use of folklore and folk songs, particularly in the compositions of Modest Mussorgsky. How did Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture reflect a nationalist spirit?
  • Ilya Repin. Leo Tolstoy Ploughing . 1887.
  • Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy. Ivan I. Shishkin . 1880. 46" × 33-1/2”.
  • How did the Crystal Palace and Pre-Raphaelite artists express the spirit of social reform? The lack of standards of beauty in British industrial design was symptomatic of the country’s social inequities, according to English civil servant and designer Henry Cole. Why did Cole propose a Universal Exposition for London’s Hyde Park in 1850? The Exposition took place at Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace. How did the Crystal Palace revolutionize architectural construction? William Morris took a different approach to the problem. With a group of friends he founded the design firm Morris and Company in 1855. Modeled on the medieval guilds, the company made everything from tapestries and ceramic tiles to stained glass and furniture, all handcrafted. In his employ were the Pre-Raphaelite painters Daniel Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne- Jones, whose work was both medieval in spirit and highly charged with erotic tension. Why did these artists and designers turn to medieval models? How does Morris’s exclusion of women from higher-level production and design positions in his firm compare with John Stuart Mill’s 1869 essay The Subjection of Women , which argued against the continued subjugation of women in Western society?
  • Joseph Paxton. Crystal Palace, London (lithograph by Charles Burton). 1851. Length: 1848' Width: 408’.
  • Joseph Paxton. Crystal Palace, London: Interior, showing glass vaulting. 1851. Length: 1848' Width: 408’.
  • Morris and Company. The Woodpecker . Design of William Morris. 1885.
  • Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Mariana . 1870. 43-1/4" × 35-5/8”.
  • Edward Burne-Jones. Laus Veneris (In Praise of Venus) . 1873-78. 48-3/4" × 74-1/4”.
  • May Morris. Bed Hangings (Two Curtains) . 1917. Each panel: 76-3/4" × 27”.
  • Kitagawa Utamaro. Continuity & Change: Shaving a Boy’s Head . Signed Utamuro hitsu. 1801. 14-15/16" × 9-13/16”.
  • Mary Stevenson Cassatt. Continuity & Change: The Bath . 1890-91. 12-3/8" × 9-3/4”.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Édouard Manet. The Barricade. ca. 1871.18-1/4" × 12-3/4”.
    • 2. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Édouard Manet. The Execution of Maximilian. 1868-69.99-1/4" × 120”.
    • 3. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Henri Fantin-Latour. A Studio in the Batignolles. Salon of 1870. 1870.6’ 8-1/4" × 8’ 11-3/4”.
    • 4. What is Impressionism?• Monet’s Escape to Giverny — Monet continually sought to escapethe city for the pleasures of the countryside. In 1883 he moved toGiverny. Monet began painting the same subject at different times ofday and in different atmospheric conditions. Each painting in the seriesbecame a fragment in the duration of the whole.• Morisot and Pissarro: The Effects of Paint — Morisot paintedfigures in clothing that is often barely distinguishable from thebackground; her paintings seem to dissolve into a uniform white light.Pisarro’s landscapes give us the impression of a view never quite fullycaptured by the painter.French Impressionism
    • 5. • Leisure and Work: Renoir, Degas and Caillebotte — Renoirand Degas preferred to paint the crowd in the cafes and restaurants, atentertainments of all kinds, and in the countryside. Renoir’s work istightly composed and show a geometric symmetry. Degas also caredcarefully constructed his paintings. Work was the theme of the firstpainting Caillebotte exhibited with the Impressionists. His theme inThe Floor-Scrapers is the monotony of repetition, the rhythm of parallellines of flooring reinforcing the theme.• Manet’s Impressionism — Manet increasingly adoptedImpressionist techniques, particularly the loose application of paint andthe emphasis on capturing the effects of light. Manet’s Impressionismincorporates the viewer into its “atmosphere,” which is actuallyimpenetrable.• Discussion Question: What are the prominent features ofimpressionism?
    • 6. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Claude Monet. The Regatta at Argenteuil. ca. 1872.19" × 29-1/2”.
    • 7. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Claude Monet. Impression: Sunrise. 1873.19-5/8" × 25-1/2”.
    • 8. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Claude Monet. Boulevard des Capucines. 1873.24" × 31-1/2”.
    • 9. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Claude Monet. Grainstack (Snow Effect). Also, Haystack. 1891.25-3/4" × 36-3/8”.
    • 10. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Berthe Morisot. Summers Day. 1879.18" × 29-3/4”.
    • 11. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Camille Pissarro. Red Roofs, or The Orchard, Côtes Saint-Denis atPontoise. 1877.21-1/2" × 25-7/8”.
    • 12. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Auguste Renoir. Oarsmen at Chatou. 1879.31-15/16" × 39-7/16”.
    • 13. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Edgar Degas. Dance Class. ca. 1874.32-3/4" × 30-1/4”.
    • 14. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Auguste Renoir. Closer Look: Luncheon of the Boating Party. 1880-81.51-1/4" × 69-1/8”.
    • 15. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Auguste Renoir. Closer Look: Luncheon of the Boating Party. 1880-81.51-1/4" × 69-1/8”.
    • 16. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Gustave Caillebotte. The Floor-Scrapers. 1875.40-1/8" × 57-1/2”.
    • 17. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Edgar Degas. Aux Ambassadeurs. 1877.14-1/2" × 10-5/8”.
    • 18. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Édouard Manet. A Bar at the Folies-Bergère. 1881-82.37-3/4" × 51-1/8”.
    • 19.  Closer Look: A Bar at the Folies-BergèreMyArtsLabChapter 31 – Hope and Possibility in Late Nineteenth-Century Europe
    • 20. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Jules Chéret. Aux Folies-Bergère. 1875.
    • 21. Russian Realism and the Questfor the Russian SoulHow was Russian nationalism reflected in literature, art, andmusic?• The Writer and Artist under the Tsars — Under the rule ofNicholas I, literary culture was severely stifled. Dostoyevskyconsidered the question, “Can we love the damned?”. The complexityof psychological guilt is the theme of Crime and Punishment where heasks, “Can immoral means justify worthy ends?” Tolstoy’s realismturned outward, to the epic stage of Russian history. War and Peacesurveys Russian life in the early nineteenth century. The Travelers wasa group of 13 visual artists dedicated to presenting art exhibitionsthroughout the country.
    • 22. • Russian Nationalistic Music and Ballet — The quest to expressthe fundamental essence of Russia was reflected in music. Slavic pridewas expressed through the incorporation of Russian folklore, folksongs, and instruments. Tchiakovsky’s nationalism is apparent in his1812 Overture. His real fame came from his ballet music such as SwanLake, Sleeping Beauty, and the Nutcracker.• Discussion Question: What are the two factions within nineteenth-century Russian society?
    • 23. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Ilya Repin. Leo Tolstoy Ploughing. 1887.
    • 24. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy. Ivan I. Shishkin. 1880.46" × 33-1/2”.
    • 25.  Active Listening Guide: Tchaikovsky: 1812OvertureMyArtsLabChapter 31 – Hope and Possibility in Late Nineteenth-Century Europe
    • 26. Britain and the Design of Social ReformHow did the Crystal Palace and Pre-Raphaelite artists express thespirit of social reform?• Morris, the Guild Movement and the Pre-Raphaelites —Morris longed to return to a handmade craft tradition, in which workers,as with the medieval craft guilds, would no longer be alienated fromtheir labor. In his designs, Morris constantly emphasized simplicity andutility. He hired many of his artist friends such as, Rossetti, and Burne-Jones. Rossetti was the leader of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, whodenounced contemporary art. He championed the spiritual values ofmedieval and early Renaissance culture. Burne-Jones illustrated manyof the books produced by Morris’s press. The influence of Morris’sdesign company fostered a guild movement throughout England intenton producing quality handcrafted goods.
    • 27. • The Fight for Women’s Rights: Mill’s Subjection of Women— Many reformers felt that women were inherently conservative, undulycontrolled by the clergy. Mill was an advocate of utilitarian theory, andon that basis felt that in assigning an inferior role to women, society waswasting an enormous resource. Mill wrote The Subjection of Women incollaboration with his wife.• Discussion Question: What are some of the late-nineteenth-century’sattitudes towards women as expressed through philosophy and art?
    • 28. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Joseph Paxton. Crystal Palace, London (lithograph by Charles Burton).1851.Length: 1848 Width: 408’.
    • 29. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Joseph Paxton. Crystal Palace, London: Interior, showing glass vaulting.1851.Length: 1848 Width: 408’.
    • 30. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Morris and Company. The Woodpecker. Design of William Morris. 1885.
    • 31. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Mariana. 1870.43-1/4" × 35-5/8”.
    • 32. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Edward Burne-Jones. Laus Veneris (In Praise of Venus). 1873-78.48-3/4" × 74-1/4”.
    • 33. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.May Morris. Bed Hangings (Two Curtains). 1917.Each panel: 76-3/4" × 27”.
    • 34. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Kitagawa Utamaro. Continuity & Change: Shaving a Boy’s Head. SignedUtamuro hitsu. 1801.14-15/16" × 9-13/16”.
    • 35. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Inc.Mary Stevenson Cassatt. Continuity & Change: The Bath. 1890-91.12-3/8" × 9-3/4”.

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