1. PSYA4The Psychology of Addictive BehaviourHow to define addiction has been a matter of great debate for decades. Formany, the concept of addiction involves the taking of drugs. However there isnow a growing movement which views a number of behaviours as potentiallyaddictive, including those that do not involve the ingestion of a drug, such as;gambling, overeating, sex, exercise, video playing, love, internet use, and believeit or not…work!In fact you can become addicted to almost anything. Such diversityhas led to all new all encompassing definitions of what constitutes anaddictive behaviour. One such definition is that of Marlatt et al.(1988), who define addictive behaviour as:‘A repetitive habit pattern that increases the risk of disease and/or associatedpersonal and social problems. Addictive behaviours are often experiencedsubjectively as ‘loss of control’…these habit patterns are typically characterisedby immediate gratification (short term reward), often coupled with delayeddeleterious effects (long term costs)…’Components model of addiction- used as clinical criteria for diagnosingsubstance dependence (addiction) to alcohol, nicotine or other drugs.SalienceMoodModificationToleranceWithdrawalSymptomsConflictRelapseIt is important to consider that some individuals engage in behaviours that haveaddictive elements without it necessarily being a full-blown addiction. For
2. PSYA4instance, if someone has no negative withdrawal after stopping their excessivecocaine use, are they really addicted? If the cocaine use does not conflict withanything else in that person’s life, can it be said to be an addiction?In very simple terms, the difference between an excessive enthusiasm and anaddiction is that enthusiasms add to life whereas addictions take away from it.All explanations explain addiction in terms of initiation, maintenance and relapse-what do these terms mean?The Biological Model of Addictive BehaviourUsing the textbook answer the following questions:GeneticsInitiation: Family and twin studies have demonstrated that genes contribute tothe development of alcohol dependence, with heritability estimates of between___% % ___% for both men and women.What did Agrawal & Lynskey (2006) find in their research into drug abuse anddependence?Twin studies have also found that the co-occurrence of some disorders isinfluenced by genetic factors what did Kendler et al. (2003) find?* Biological, cognitive and learning modelsof addiction, including explanations forinitiation, maintenance and relapse.* Explanations for specific addictions,including smoking and gambling.QuickTime™ and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorare needed to see this picture.
3. PSYA4Specific genes, specific drugs: In the 1990’s researchers began to link the D2dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) to severe _______________. Noble et al.found that the A1 variant of the gene was present in …•Whereas only …•Blum et al. (1991) found an increased prevalence of the A!1 variant amongchildren born to alcoholics, possibly reflecting the increased intra-family risk.Individuals with the A1 variant appeared to have significantly fewer dopaminereceptors in the pleasure centres of the brain, leading Noble et al. to refer to theDRD2 gene as the ‘__________ ________’.In other words…The result is that their addiction is maintained because it is only with the drug thatthey feel good.What addictions has the A1 variation of the DRD2 gene been associated with?Research to illustrate (AO1) this comes from Comings et al. (1996) who found …
4. PSYA4The Disease Model- the role of dopamine in addictionInitiation: Research has shown that addictive drugs stimulate a reward circuit inthe brain. Rewarding experiences, such as drug-taking, trigger the release of thechemical ____________, effectively telling the brain to ‘do it again’.For example; crack cocaine causes a massive and rapid activation of dopaminereceptors in the ______________ pathway. This circuit registers the value ofimportant experiences, thereby creating lasting memories that link to drug to apleasurable ___________.Maintenance: Complete the diagram below-Relapse: Eventually, desire for the drug may assume more importance thanmost other desires. Despite the fact that the drug no longer gives much, if any,pleasure, the brain is still receiving ‘difficult to resist’ signals of imminent rewardthat force the addict to take the drug again. Due to this, permanent recovery ismade more difficult because of the drug-induced changes that create lastingmemories of the drug. Addicts have learned to expect a rewarding experiencefrom the drug, and, for the individual trying to abstain from the drug, they aresurrounded with cues- reminders of the drug that cause the release of dopamineand therefore predicts a reward. This type of behavioural learning works even ifthe addict knows that a reward is not really coming. Why does this occur?Down RegulationThis generates…This negativestate then…As a result…
5. PSYA4+ Individual Differences - Inconsistent researchfindings- DRD2 gene and otherdisorders+ Supporting research - Limitations of neurochemicalexplanationsAre dopamine sensitivity &addiction inevitably linked?
6. PSYA4The Cognitive Model of Addictive BehaviourThe cognitive explanation is much easier to understand in relation to behaviouraladdictions, such as _______________, than to chemical addictions, such as_________________ and ______________ __________________. Cognitiveexplanations of addiction focus on faulty thinking processes and biases, and it isassumed that a person would be most susceptible to addiction during the____________________ phase. Faulty cognitions are less likely to have aneffect during the initiation phase of the addiction, as the cognitive model alsoassumes that all individuals are equally susceptible to developing an addictivebehaviour. However if someone were to give up their addiction, those with faultycognitions would be more susceptible to relapse unless they undergo some kindof cognitive correction treatment.Griffiths (1994)- irrational cognitive biasAn experiment demonstrated that gamblers have irrational cognitivebiases concerning their gambling behaviour and that they use avariety of heuristics when gambling.What are ‘heuristics’? Provide an example…Griffiths aim was to investigate cognition in gambling and, in particular, to find outwhether regular gamblers (RG) think and behave differently from non-regulargamblers (NRG)How were RG and NRG defined?
7. PSYA4The experiment took place in a real amusement arcade. All participants wererandomly allocated to the thinking aloud (TA) or the non-thinking aloud (NTA)group. They were all given £3 and asked to stay on the machine for 60 plays.Griffiths found that there were cognitive differences between the two groups (RG& NRG)Irrational verbalisations- RG were more likely to have irrational verbalisations,(e.g. personifying the machine). Examples of personification are;Typical explanations for explaining losses involved;Rational verbalisations-In conclusion, there were only minor behavioural differences, however there wereimportant cognitive differences in both their rational and irrational verbalisations.The results therefore support explanations of gambling that are based oncognitive bias and heuristics.- Experiential factors may play a role - Griffiths (1994) found that regulargamblers had greater difficulty than occasional players in verbalising theirthoughts while they were gambling. Regular players seemed capable ofgambling without attending to what they were doing (‘on automatic pilot’),suggesting that cognitive processes did not play a major role in the maintenanceof their behaviour.- Skill perception varies across individuals – Many cognitive processes thought tounderlie gambling behaviour are more likely to be observed when activities areperceived as having some skilful component (Griffiths 1995). However, beliefsabout skill in gambling are neither completely irrational nor consistent across
8. PSYA4players. This means that cause and effect of such relationships cannot beestablished with any certainty.
9. PSYA4Cognitive Models:o The Self- Medication Modelo Expectancy Theories- expectations about the outcomes of addictivebehaviour are thought to contribute to their excessive useo Rational Choice Theory- people choose to engage in an activity as a resultof weighing up the costs and benefits.Initiation Maintenance & RelapseInitiation Maintenance & RelapseInitiation Maintenance & Relapse
10. PSYA4Self Medication+ Supporting Research-Problems of cause and effectExpectancy TheoriesSubjective evaluation of expected outcomesAddiction or consumption?Rational Choice Theory+ Explaining restraint+Implications for treatmentIn addition…- Cognitive explanations may be limited to particular addictions – cognitive explanations mayhave less of an effect in chemical addictions like heroin addiction but a more pronounced effectin gambling and videogame addictions.
11. PSYA4The Behaviourist Model of Addictive BehaviourClassical ConditioningInitiation, the role of secondary reinforcers-ooMaintenance and relapse- Once a drug habit has been acquired, it may bemaintained through the threat of withdrawal symptoms, for example…Before conditioningUCS UCRDuring conditioningUCS + NS UCRAS Recap-Explain the difference between classical and operant conditioning…Explain the difference between positive and negative reinforcement…What is the social learning theory?QuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.After conditioningCS CR
12. PSYA4Operant ConditioningInitiation, the role of positive reinforcement- Any behaviour producing aconsequence that the individual finds rewarding us likely to lead to the behaviourthan becoming more frequent.How can this relate to dopamine?Apply this to two types of addiction…Social Learning Theory (SLT)Initiation- SLT extends the ideas of classical and operant conditioning to includelearning that takes place through observation and communication.Addiction to drug use begins through operant conditioning…However, some drug-taking experiences lead to adverse effects…Maintenance and relapse-
13. PSYA4Classical ConditioningN- There is supporting research for the classical conditioning explanation ofaddiction.E- Classical conditioning states that…A- For example; Robins et al. (1975) found thatN- It can be suggested that classical conditioning can be used and a form oftreatment for addiction.E- Drummond et al (1990)…A- This then leads to ‘stimulus discrimination’Operant ConditioningN- A strength is that the process of developing and maintaining an addiction doesnot require conscious choice or awareness.E-A- This therefore supports the underlying assumption of the learning model.N- This explanation successfully explains why some people initially takepotentially addictive drugs, however there are other aspects of addiction it fails toconsider.E- For example; Robinson & Berridge (1993)A- Therefore there must be other psychological factors involved in the transitionfrom consumption to addiction.
14. PSYA4Social Learning TheoryN- There is supporting research for the social learning explanation of addiction.E- For example; peer group influences have been found to be the primaryinfluence for adolescents who smoke or use drugs (DiBalsio & Benda, 1993).A- This tendency to conform to the norms of a reference group and to imitate thebehaviour of admired peers has lead to the development of treatmentprogrammes…Botvin (2000)N- Social learning also considers the effects of self-efficacy on addiction.E- For example; adults…Also in adolescents…A- Therefore it can be suggested that a person’s belief in their ability to succeedin a situation can have can effect both maintenance and relapse.