Gotta go, gotta go, gotta go Right Now!!!!! Marguerite Smith Presentation Chapter 9 Biology 120
Urinary System The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are the urinary system. The urinary system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra. Your body takes nutrients from food and uses them to maintain all bodily functions including energy and self-repair. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste products are left behind in the blood and in the bowel. The urinary system works with the lungs, skin, and intestines—all of which also excrete wastes—to keep the chemicals and water in your body balanced. Adults eliminate about a quart and a half of urine each day. The amount depends on many factors, especially the amounts of fluid and food a person consumes and how much fluid is lost through sweat and breathing. Certain types of medications can also affect the amount of urine eliminated. The urinary system removes a type of waste called urea from your blood. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.
Excretory Urography (EU ) The radiographic examination of the urinary tract. It is accomplished by the use of contrast medium that is injected into the blood, filtered by the kidneys. A series of X-rays are taken.
End Stage Renal Disease ( ESRD ) This is a disease where the kidneys completely fail to work. The kidneys can no longer remove wastes, concentrate urine, and regulate many other important body functions. End-stage kidney disease occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to function at a level needed for day-to-day life. It usually occurs when chronic kidney disease has worsened to the point at which kidney function is less than 10% of normal.
Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy ( ESWL ) Noninvasive treatment of kidney stones in addition to liver and gallstones using an acoustic pulse. The lithotriptor attempts to break up the stone with minimal collateral damage by using an externally-applied, focused, high-intensity acoustic pulse. Extracorporeal lithotripsy works best with stones between 4 mm and 2 cm in diameter that are still located in the kidney.
Urine Culture ( UC ) This test is used to diagnose a urinary tract infection. A urine culture may be ordered when symptoms indicate the possibility of a urinary tract infection, such as pain and burning when urinating and frequent urge to urinate. Antibiotic therapy may be prescribed without requiring a urine culture for symptomatic young women who have an uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection. If there is suspicion of a complicated infection or symptoms do not respond to initial therapy, then a culture of the urine is recommended. The presence of a single type of bacteria growing at high colony counts (greater than 10,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml) is considered a positive urine culture.
Urinary Tract Infection ( UTI ) A urinary tract infection is an infection that begins in your urinary system. Any part of your urinary system can become infected, but most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the urethra and the bladder. Women are at greater risk of developing a urinary tract infection than are men. Antibiotics are the typical treatment for a urinary tract infection.