The pancreas
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The pancreas



Presentation 11 11.9.2011

Presentation 11 11.9.2011



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The pancreas The pancreas Presentation Transcript

  • The Pancreas Diseases of the Pancreas By Marjorie Smith
  • The Pancreas
    • The pancreas is a unique gland
    • The pancreas is both a exocrine and endocrine gland
    • It is a duct gland, pancreatic duct
    • It is a ductless gland, islet of Langerhans
  • Duct Gland
    • As a duct gland or exocrine gland, the pancreas aids in digestion
    • It secretes pancreatic enzymes into the small intestines
    • It aids in digestion as a part of the digestive system
    • It is also an endocrine gland, too
  • Exocrine Gland
    • As an exocrine gland, the pancreas aid in digestion
    • It secretes buffers and pancreatic enzymes
    • The buffers and pancreatic enzymes help in the digestive process
  • Buffers and Enzymes
    • The buffers produce by the pancreas help neutralize the acidic chyme as it enters the small intestine
    • Pancreatic enzymes help digest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  • Buffers and Enzymes
    • Without the buffers and enzymes, food is not digested and absorbed
      • Can lead to malnurtition
      • Weight loss
      • diarrhea
  • Ductless Gland
    • As a ductless or endocrine gland, the pancreas regulates blood glucose levels
    • Cells of the islet of Langerhans secretes these hormones
    • These hormones are responsible for increase and decrease blood glucose levels
    • Secretes these hormones directly into the bloodstream
  • Endocrine Gland
    • As a endocrine gland, the pancreas regulates blood glucose levels
    • The islet of Langerhans is where these hormones are produced
    • There are two different cells that produce these hormones
  • Insulin and Glucagon
    • The pancreas produce both insulin and glucagon
    • Insulin lowers blood glucose level
    • Glucagon rises blood glucose level
  • Insulin and Glucagon
    • Insulin is produced in the beta islet cells
    • Insulin causes the body to absorb glucose from the blood
    • Insulin lowers the blood sugar levers
    • Glucagon is produced in the alpha islet cells
    • Glucagon causes the liver to release glucose
    • This causes the blood glucose levels to rise
    • Glucagon is antagonist of insulin
  • Diseases that Affect the Pancreas
    • These diseases can cause the pancreas to over produce or under produce its products
    • Diabetes mellitus
      • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
      • Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
      • Diabetic retinopathy,
      • Insulinoma
      • ketoacidosis
  • Diseases that Affect the Pancreas
    • Peripheral neuropathy
    • Acute pancreatitis
    • Chronic pancreatitis
    • Hereditary pancreatitis
    • Pancreatic cancer
    • Nephropathy
    • stroke
  • Diabetes Mellitus
    • Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by the body inability to metabolize carbohydrates
    • This may lead to hyperglycemia and glycosuria
    • The body makes excessive amount of insulin or the body does not absorb the insulin produce into the cells
  • Diabetes Mellitus
    • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus develops early in life
    • It is known as childhood or type 1 diabetes
    • The pancreas is not able to produce insulin in adequate amounts
    • Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus develops later in life
    • It is known as type 2 diabetes
    • The pancreas produce normal to high levels of insulin
  • Diabetes Mellitus
    • People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin for life
    • People with type 2 diabetes may take oral hypoglycemics to improve insulin function or insulin, if needed
  • Factors that Affect Diabetes Mellitus
    • Risk factors for Diabetes
    • Family history
    • Over weight
    • Sedimentary lifestyle
    • High blood pressures
    • Certain racial and ethnic groups
  • Diagnostic Tests
    • Blood tests are helpful in determining pancreas diseases
    • Blood tests include:
      • Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)
      • Glucose Tolerance test (GTT
    • Radiographic tests are best to evaluate structure of pancreas
      • Computed tomography scan (CAT)
      • Endoscopic ultrasound
  • Diagnostic Tests
      • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
      • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatigraphy (MRCP)
      • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatophy (ERCP)
      • Used for evaluating the pancreatic duct
  • Therapeutic Procedures
    • Treatment of pancreatic diseases include:
      • Hormone replacement
      • Chemotherapy
      • Radiation therapy
      • In some instance surgery may be needed
  • Medications
    • Medication may be used to treat diabetes mellitus and other pancreatic diseases
    • Insulin
      • Rapid-acting
      • Short-acting
      • Intermediate-acting
      • Long-acting
      • Pre-mixed
    • Oral hypoglycemic agents and other forms of delivery:
      • Oral insulin
      • Insulin pump
      • Inhaled insulin
      • Transdermal insulin (patch)
      • Intranasal insulin
  • Medications
      • Rapid-acting: Humalog
      • Short-acting: Novolin
      • Intermediate-acting: Lente
      • Long-acting:Lantus
      • Pre-mixed: Humulin
      • OmniPod and Animas make insulin pumps
      • Exubera is an inhaled insulin
      • Cellnovo is an insulin patch being used
      • Pass port (R) is being tested as an insulin delivery system
  • Works Cited
    • American Diabetes Association, Web. 9 Nov 2011.
    • “ Common Disorders of the Pancreas ”.
    • National Pancreas Foundation Web.
    • 9 Nov 2011.
    • Fremgen, Bonnie F, Suzanne S. Frucht.
    • Medical Terminology: A Living
    • Language . 4 th ed. New York. Pearson
    • Education, Inc. 2009. Print
    • Web 9 Nov 2011
    • Web. 9 Nov 2011.
    • Transdermal Basal Insulin Patch
    • Web. 9 Nov 2011.
    • “ Types of Insulin for Diabetes Treatment”. WebMD. Web
    • 9 Nov 2011.