(or commas with coordinating conjunctions and complete sentences)
commas and introductory clauses & phrases
commas with appositive phrases
commas and non-essential elements
commas and adjectives
commas and quotations
Commas in a Series This type of comma usage refers to a list of items, or words. Think of a grocery list.
A. Jonathan , Bess , and Stuart are best friends.
Mark, please remember to shut down the
computer , feed the dog , and iron your uniform .
C. I need pens , pencils , and notebooks .
Hey, you! The one in the red R.O.O.L. shirt! Do you understand? Let’s move on.
Once he realized his mistake , Mark was able to correct his answer. After the basketball game , we will attend the school dance. In 1492 , Christopher Columbus sails to the New World. Think about everything that has been taught about grammar. What do you notice about the words in the sentence? What do you notice about the placement of commas? Does anything look familiar? ANYTHING?
Commas Between Independent Clauses (or commas with coordinating conjunctions and complete sentences)
First, a clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb .
James Wilson works as a chemical engineer
his mother works as a pharmacist
Second, an independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and stand alone as a complete thought.
James Wilson works his mother works
Third, coordinating conjunctions – for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so – can join two independent clauses together to form one sentence.
James Wilson works as a chemical engineer, and his mother works as a pharmacist.
James Wilson works as a chemical engineer, and his mother works as a pharmacist. two independent clauses joined by a conjunction! Do you get it?