Shakespeare’s Language Ms. Marshall-Krauss 8th Grade English HCMS Page 79
Shakespeare’s Language November 28, 2011 <ul><li>Warm up: </li></ul><ul><li>What language does Shakespeare write in? Give an example and explain your answer. </li></ul>79
Today’s objective <ul><li>is to listen to examples of the English language, take notes on the important events in the development of the English language, and write connections to our own lives in order to identify the broad differences between Early Modern English and Modern English. </li></ul>
Old English? <ul><li>Beowulf </li></ul><ul><li>LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings </li></ul><ul><li>of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped, </li></ul><ul><li>we have heard, and what honor the athelings won! </li></ul><ul><li>Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes, </li></ul><ul><li>from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore, </li></ul>awing the earls. Since erst he lay friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him: for he waxed under welkin, in wealth he throve, till before him the folk, both far and near, who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate, gave him gifts: a good king he!
Language Questions <ul><li>After listening to Beowulf in Old English, do you think this is the language Shakespeare wrote in? Explain. </li></ul>Page 79
English Language Timeline Old English Middle English Mid 400's Germans invade British Isles 900 Beowulf Written 1066 Norman invasion and William the Conqueror Starts 1200 Great Vowel Shift 1300's Geoffrey Chaucer writes Canterbury Tales 1476 William Caxton starts printing, but not using a fixed language Page 80 Language Date Event
Middle English? <ul><li>Chaucer </li></ul><ul><li>When April with his showers sweet with fruit </li></ul><ul><li>The drought of March has pierced unto the root </li></ul><ul><li>And bathed each vein with liquor that has power </li></ul><ul><li>To generate therein and sire the flower; </li></ul><ul><li>When Zephyr also has, with his sweet breath, </li></ul><ul><li>Quickened again, in every holt and heath, </li></ul><ul><li>The tender shoots and buds, and the young sun </li></ul><ul><li>Into the Ram one half his course has run, </li></ul><ul><li>And many little birds make melody </li></ul><ul><li>That sleep through all the night with open eye </li></ul><ul><li>(So Nature pricks them on to ramp and rage)- </li></ul><ul><li>Then do folk long to go on pilgrimage, </li></ul><ul><li>And palmers to go seeking out strange strands, </li></ul><ul><li>To distant shrines well known in sundry lands. </li></ul><ul><li>And specially from every shire's end </li></ul><ul><li>Of England they to Canterbury wend, </li></ul>The holy blessed martyr there to seek Who helped them when they lay so ill and weal Befell that, in that season, on a day In Southwark, at the Tabard, as I lay Ready to start upon my pilgrimage To Canterbury, full of devout homage, There came at nightfall to that hostelry Some nine and twenty in a company Of sundry persons who had chanced to fall In fellowship, and pilgrims were they all That toward Canterbury town would ride. The rooms and stables spacious were and wide, And well we there were eased, and of the best. And briefly, when the sun had gone to rest, So had I spoken with them, every one, That I was of their fellowship anon, And made agreement that we'd early rise To take the road, as you I will apprise.
English Language Timeline Early Modern English Modern English 1490's Richard Pynson starts using government Lang- uage as a standard in printing. 1590's-1612 Shakespeare writes plays. 1662 Book of Common Prayer printed with wide distribution. 1776 Declaration of Independence written in U.S. Present Mass communication, fixed language, education Page 80 Language Date Event
Act 1 Prologue Lines 1-4 <ul><li>Two households both alike in dignity, </li></ul><ul><li>In fair Verona where we lay our scene, </li></ul><ul><li>From ancient grudge, break to new mutiny, </li></ul><ul><li>Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. </li></ul>
Modern English Translation <ul><li>In the beautiful city of Verona, where our story takes place, a long-standing hatred between two families erupts into new violence, and citizens stain their hands with the blood of their fellow citizens. </li></ul>
Language Questions <ul><li>Shakespeare writes in Early Modern English. Why is this information important for students reading Shakespeare today? Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>What can you as a reader do to help you understand early modern English? </li></ul>Page 79
Shakespeare’s Language Cont. November 15, 2011 <ul><li>Warm up: Be sure you have answers to the following two questions on page 65. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s objective is to list strategies for understanding early modern English and use those strategies to interpret lines of Shakespearean text. </li></ul>79
In groups <ul><li>Review your answers to number 3 and 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a list of at least three strategies for understanding Shakespeare. </li></ul><ul><li>Write those ideas on the board. </li></ul>
Practice <ul><li>Practice the strategies on the board on the worksheet provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection : How do you feel about Shakespeare’s language now? Explain. </li></ul>79
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